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Although murine X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are genetically homologous and both characterized by a complete absence of dystrophin, the limb muscles of adult mdx mice suffer neither the detectable weakness nor the progressive degeneration that are features of DMD. Here we show that the mdx mouse diaphragm exhibits(More)
Animals capable of regenerating multiple tissue types, organs, and appendages after injury are common yet sporadic and include some sponge, hydra, planarian, and salamander (i.e., newt and axolotl) species, but notably such regenerative capacity is rare in mammals. The adult MRL mouse strain is a rare exception to the rule that mammals do not regenerate(More)
Activated T lymphocytes are present in human atherosclerotic lesions and autoantibodies to antigens within lesions have been detected in serum, but the roles of the cellular and humoral immune systems in atherogenesis have not been determined. The effect of total lymphocyte deficiency on atherogenesis was investigated by crossing apo E-deficient mice (which(More)
Targeting of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to endothelial cells (ECs) provides an avenue to improve treatment of many maladies. For example, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a constitutive endothelial cell adhesion molecule up-regulated in many diseases, is a good determinant for endothelial targeting of therapeutic enzymes and polymer(More)
The control of c-ski transgene expression and muscle hypertrophy have been investigated in transgenic mice. In adult animals, the level of transgene expression is linked to the specialized phenotype of individual muscles, high levels occur in fast muscles and significantly lower levels in muscles with high metabolic activity (diaphragm, soleus). These(More)
Type B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a multiorgan system disorder caused by a genetic deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), for which lung is an important and challenging therapeutic target. In this study, we designed and evaluated new delivery vehicles for enzyme replacement therapy of type B NPD, consisting of polystyrene and poly(lactic-coglycolic)(More)
There are two pairs of muscles in each abdominal segment of the crab; one pair of flexors and one pair of extensors. In the early larval stages the muscles have short sarcomeres--a property of fast fibers--and high thin to thick filament ratios--a property of slow fibers. In the adult the abdominal muscles are intermediate and slow, since they have fibers(More)
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase(s) (PI3K) are a family of proteins that catalyze the phosphorylation of the 3-OH position of phos-phoinositides and generate lipids that control a wide variety of intracellular signaling pathways. They are classified into three families according to their structure and substrate specificity and are thought to have distinct(More)
We have examined the innervation patterns of the two excitor axons to the closer muscle in the dimorphic (snapper and pincer) claws of Californian snapping shrimp (Alpheus californiensis). In both claws the fast-closer excitor (FCE) axon supplies all of the closer muscle fibers. The slow-closer excitor (SCE) axon, however, makes functional connections only(More)
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