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It has been suggested that iconic graphical signs evolve into symbolic graphical signs through repeated usage. This article reports a series of interactive graphical communication experiments using a 'pictionary' task to establish the conditions under which the evolution might occur. Experiment 1 rules out a simple repetition based account in favor of an(More)
One common mistake made by non-native speakers of English is to drop the articles a, an, or the. We apply the log-linear model to automatically restore missing articles based on features of the noun phrase. We first show that the model yields competitive results in article generation. Further, we describe methods to adjust the model with respect to the(More)
To study the development of graphical conventions we had members of a simulated community play a series of graphical interaction games with partners drawn from the same pool (Experiment 1). Once the community was established, a conventional graphical referring scheme emerged that facilitated high levels of semantic coordination, with reduced communicative(More)
Argumentation is concerned with reasoning in the presence of imperfect information by constructing and weighing up arguments. It is an approach for inconsistency management in which connict is explored rather than eradicated. This form of reasoning has proved applicable to many problems in knowledge engineering that involve uncertain, incomplete or(More)