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The evolution of cooperation and communication in communities of individuals is a puzzling problem for a wide range of scientific disciplines, ranging from evolutionary theory to the theory and application of multi-agent systems. A key issue is to understand the factors that affect collaboration and communication evolution. To address this problem, here we(More)
Uncertainty is an important factor that influences social evolution in natural and artificial environments. Here we distinguish between three aspects of uncertainty. Environmental uncertainty is the variance of resources in the environment, perceived uncertainty is the variance of the resource distribution as perceived by the organism and effective(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess central arterial stiffness in thyrotoxicosis using the technique of pulse wave analysis. DESIGN Case control study designed to determine the effect of thyrotoxicosis on central arterial stiffness and at 6 months after radioiodine treatment. PATIENTS Twenty (18 women and 2 men) thyrotoxic patients and 20 age- and sex-matched controls(More)
BACKGROUND Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. It is defined by WHO as mild if the population median urinary iodine excretion is 50-99 μg/L, moderate if 20-49 μg/L, and severe if less than 20 μg/L. No contemporary data are available for the UK, which has no programme of food or salt iodination. We aimed to(More)
The subcellular compartments have been investigated to compare proteins capable of binding triiodothyronine and thyroxine; specific binders have been found in cytosol, nuclei, and mitochondria from rat liver and kidney. The binding protein from the inner mitochondrial membrane had the highest association constant (greater than 10(11) liters per mole),(More)
BACKGROUND Postnatal depression is more common in women positive for thyroid autoantibodies, independent of thyroid hormone dysfunction, but the basis of this association is unclear. AIMS The objective of the work reported here has been to investigate from data obtained from previously published research, a possible association between life events,(More)
Seventy-three patients who had been continuously receiving lithium carbonate for 6 months or more had their thyroid function evaluated clinically and biochemically. Goitre was found in 37%, exophthalmos in 23%, positive thyroid auto-antibodies in 24% and abnormal TRH tests in 49%. It would appear that thyroid failure due to lithium is usually dependent on(More)
There is a high incidence of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy resulting in adverse maternal (miscarriages, anaemia in pregnancy, preeclampsia, abruptio placenta and post-partum haemorrhage) and fetal effects (premature birth, low birth weight, increased neonatal respiratory distress) which may justify screening for thyroid function during early(More)