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The evolution of cooperation and communication in communities of individuals is a puzzling problem for a wide range of scientific disciplines, ranging from evolutionary theory to the theory and application of multi-agent systems. A key issue is to understand the factors that affect collaboration and communication evolution. To address this problem, here we(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess central arterial stiffness in thyrotoxicosis using the technique of pulse wave analysis. DESIGN Case control study designed to determine the effect of thyrotoxicosis on central arterial stiffness and at 6 months after radioiodine treatment. PATIENTS Twenty (18 women and 2 men) thyrotoxic patients and 20 age- and sex-matched controls(More)
Uncertainty is an important factor that influences social evolution in natural and artificial environments. Here we distinguish between three aspects of uncertainty. Environmental uncertainty is the variance of resources in the environment, perceived uncertainty is the variance of the resource distribution as perceived by the organism and effective(More)
BACKGROUND Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. It is defined by WHO as mild if the population median urinary iodine excretion is 50-99 μg/L, moderate if 20-49 μg/L, and severe if less than 20 μg/L. No contemporary data are available for the UK, which has no programme of food or salt iodination. We aimed to(More)
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), a dominantly inherited disorder usually associated with mutations in thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB), is characterized by elevated levels of circulating thyroid hormones (including thyroxine), failure of feedback suppression of thyrotropin, and variable tissue refractoriness to thyroid hormone action. Raised energy(More)
This guideline has been produced as the official statement of the European Thyroid Association guideline committee. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnancy is defined as a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level above the pregnancy-related reference range with a normal serum thyroxine concentration. Isolated hypothyroxinaemia (defined as a thyroxine(More)
The clinical and biochemical features of postpartum thyroid disease were analysed in 152 antithyroid peroxidase antibody-positive (anti-TPO+ve) women and compared with 239 anti-TPO-ve age-matched control postpartum women. All were assessed monthly for up to 12 months postpartum. Seventy three anti-TPO+ve women developed postpartum thyroiditis (PPT): 19.2%(More)
There is a high incidence of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy resulting in adverse maternal (miscarriages, anaemia in pregnancy, preeclampsia, abruptio placenta and post-partum haemorrhage) and fetal effects (premature birth, low birth weight, increased neonatal respiratory distress) which may justify screening for thyroid function during early(More)