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There is recent evidence that intestinal function is an important determinant in the outcome of critically ill patients. The barrier function is an important characteristic of the gut. Its workings are complex and it consists of epithelial, molecular, and immune components. The pathogenesis of gut dysfunction among critically ill patients is multifactorial,(More)
BACKGROUND Monocyte-chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) activates macrophages and increases the migration of monocytes into tissue during inflammation. It was hypothesized that MCP-1 expression is involved in intestinal inflammation. METHODS MCP-1 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoprecipitation. Biological activity of MCP-1 was assessed(More)
The effects of an intracolonic infusion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on the healing of colonic anastomosis in the rat were investigated. Thirty-three Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transection and anastomosis of the descending colon and transection and diversion of the ascending colon. The proximal limb of the ascending colon was exteriorized as an end(More)
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in need of surgery are often malnourished, which in turn increases the risk for postoperative complications. Malnutrition in IBD patients who must undergo surgery is due to the disordered activity of the diseased intestine, decreased dietary intake, and adverse effects of potent medications. IBD operations(More)
Investigations in the pathophysiology and treatment of postoperative ileus continue to evolve. Bowel rest is no longer a mandatory component of postoperative recovery. Tolerance of enteral nutrition and normalization of the abdominal examination are more accurate indications of the resolution of postoperative ileus than passage of flatus or first bowel(More)
BACKGROUND Although gamma delta T cells are a major component of the human intestinal mucosa, it is not clear what role they play in mucosal immunity or if they are involved in the disease process of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIALS AND METHODS Flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were used to(More)
Intestinal adaptation after extensive small bowel resection in rats is augmented by the provision of diets supplemented with the amino acid glutamine (Gln) or by administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The goal of this study was to investigate potential synergistic effects of Gln and IGF-I on postresection ileal hyperplasia. Rats underwent(More)
After massive small bowel resection, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is prescribed to maintain nutritional status. However, TPN reduces the mass of the remaining intestinal mucosa, whereas adaptation to small bowel resection is associated with increased mucosal mass. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been shown to stimulate mucosal cell mitotic(More)
Diarrhea is one of the most common complications in patients who receive tube-feeding formulas. Since the colon is the final site of water and electrolyte absorption and ultimately determines fecal composition, diarrhea during tube feeding may result from altered colonic function. The lack of dietary fiber, such as pectin, in tube-feeding formulas may be(More)