John L Putnam

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This study was designed to determine if infection of Aedes aegypti with dengue-2 virus affects the ability of the mosquito to efficiently locate and imbibe blood from an uninfected host. Previous studies suggest that some parasites manipulate their arthropod host to increase the probability of transmission by interfering with blood-feeding efficiency. We(More)
One of the most significant modern day efforts to prevent and control an arthropod-borne disease during a military deployment occurred when a team of U.S. military entomologists led efforts to characterize, prevent, and control leishmaniasis at Tallil Air Base (TAB), Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Soon after arriving at TAB on 22 March 2003, military(More)
In this study, we examined the effect of weather and moon illumination on sand fly activity, as measured by light trap collections made between 2 May 2003 and 25 October 2004 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. Wind speed, temperature, dew point, percentage of sky cover, and moon illumination were entered into principal components analysis. The resulting principal(More)
Sand flies collected between April 2003 and November 2004 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq, were evaluated for the presence of Leishmania parasites using a combination of a real-time Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and sequencing of a 360-bp fragment of the glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase (GPI) gene. A total of 2,505 pools containing 26,574(More)
We conducted a series of field experiments in 2003 and 2004 to evaluate the efficacy of a variety of insecticides and insecticide application technologies for the control of phlebotomine sand flies at Tallil Airbase, Iraq. During the experiments, 53,263 sand flies were collected. The experiments evaluated the following: (1) routine sand fly control(More)
CDC miniature light traps were used to evaluate the general biology of phlebotomine sand flies from April 2003 to November 2004 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. Factors evaluated include species diversity and temporal (daily and seasonal) and geographic distribution of the sand flies. In addition, the abundance of sand flies inside and outside tents and buildings(More)
Vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and leishmaniasis are a threat to military forces deployed outside of the United States. The availability of specific information on the vector-borne disease threat (e.g., presence or absence of a specific disease agent, temporal and geographic distribution of competent vectors, and vector infection rates)(More)
Dengue virus universal and serotype 1 to 4 fluorogenic probe hydrolysis, reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and positive-control RNA template were freeze-dried in a thermally stable, hydrolytic enzyme-resistant format and deployed for testing in a dengue fever-endemic region of Thailand. The study site presented austere(More)
Two patients with leukemia experienced profound thrombocytopenia and refractoriness to platelet transfusion during vancomycin treatment. In one patient, withdrawal of drug and administration of platelet transfusions restored platelet counts to near normal levels (approximately 100 x 10(9)/L), however, subsequent challenge with vancomycin due to recurring(More)