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We present a framework for explaining variation in predator invasion success and predator impacts on native prey that integrates information about predator–prey naïveté, predator and prey behavioral responses to each other, consumptive and non-consumptive eff ects of predators on prey, and interacting eff ects of multiple species interactions. We begin with(More)
Among the most popular strategies for maintaining populations of both plants and animals in fragmented landscapes is to connect isolated patches with thin strips of habitat, called corridors. Corridors are thought to increase the exchange of individuals between habitat patches, promoting genetic exchange and reducing population fluctuations. Empirical(More)
Predators can affect prey populations through changes in traits that reduce predation risk. These trait changes (nonconsumptive effects, NCEs) can be energetically costly and cause reduced prey activity, growth, fecundity, and survival. The strength of nonconsumptive effects may vary with two functional characteristics of predators: hunting mode (actively(More)
We conducted an analysis of global forest cover to reveal that 70% of remaining forest is within 1 km of the forest's edge, subject to the degrading effects of fragmentation. A synthesis of fragmentation experiments spanning multiple biomes and scales, five continents, and 35 years demonstrates that habitat fragmentation reduces biodiversity by 13 to 75%(More)
Predator effects on prey dynamics are conventionally studied by measuring changes in prey abundance attributed to consumption by predators. We revisit four classic examples of predator-prey systems often cited in textbooks and incorporate subsequent studies of nonconsumptive effects of predators (NCE), defined as changes in prey traits (e.g., behavior,(More)
Habitat fragmentation is one of the largest threats to biodiversity. Landscape corridors, which are hypothesized to reduce the negative consequences of fragmentation, have become common features of ecological management plans worldwide. Despite their popularity, there is little evidence documenting the effectiveness of corridors in preserving biodiversity(More)
We examine the role of stochasticity and competitive ability in affecting competition between two species using models derived for population genetics. Just as changing population size affects the fixation of a new mutation, we show that changing the total number of competitors (i.e., community size) can alter the course of competitive exclusion across a(More)
Water-soluble phytochemicals produced by invasive plants may represent novel elements of invaded ecosystems that can precipitate a variety of direct and indirect effects on native organisms. Phenolic compounds in particular are a common plant defense, and these compounds may have disproportionate impacts on amphibians compared to other taxa. We coupled an(More)
Sanfilippo syndrome type B (MPS IIIB) is a lysosomal storage disease resulting from a deficiency of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAGLU) activity. In an attempt to correct the disease in the murine model of MPS IIIB, neonatal mice were treated with intracranial AAV2/5-NAGLU (AAV), syngeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT), or both (AAV/BMT). All treatments(More)
For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity.(More)