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Though many neuroscientific methods have been brought to bear in the search for functional specializations within prefrontal cortex, little consensus has emerged. To assess the contribution of functional neuroimaging, this article reviews patterns of frontal-lobe activation associated with a broad range of different cognitive demands, including aspects of(More)
We often search for a face in a crowd or for a particular object in a cluttered environment. In this type of visual search, memory interacts with attention: the mediating neural mechanisms should include a stored representation of the object and a means for selecting that object from among others in the scene. Here we test whether neurons in inferior(More)
A common or multiple-demand (MD) pattern of frontal and parietal activity is associated with diverse cognitive demands, and with standard tests of fluid intelligence. In intelligent behaviour, goals are achieved by assembling a series of sub-tasks, creating structured mental programs. Single cell and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data(More)
Threat-related stimuli are strong competitors for attention, particularly in anxious individuals. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with healthy human volunteers to study how the processing of threat-related distractors is controlled and whether this alters as anxiety levels increase. Our work builds upon prior analyses of the cognitive(More)
Universal positive correlations between different cognitive tests motivate the concept of "general intelligence" or Spearman's g. Here the neural basis for g is investigated by means of positron emission tomography. Spatial, verbal, and perceptuo-motor tasks with high-g involvement are compared with matched low-g control tasks. In contrast to the common(More)
There is much evidence that the prefrontal cortex makes a vital contribution to effective, organized behaviour. Patients with prefrontal lesions can show a broad loosening in the structure of thought and action: the normal picture, a coherent sequence of actions and mental activities that allow the achievement of some selected goal, is distorted, sometimes(More)
Findings from fear-conditioning studies in rats and functional neuroimaging with human volunteers have led to the suggestion that the amygdala is involved in the preattentive detection of threat-related stimuli. However, some neuroimaging findings point to attentional modulation of the amygdala response. The clinical-cognitive literature suggests that the(More)