John Kinuthia

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OBJECTIVE To evaluate birth preparedness and complication readiness among antenatal care clients. DESIGN A descriptive cross- sectional study. SETTING Antenatal care clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS Three hundred and ninety four women attending antenatal care at Kenyatta National hospital were interviewed using a(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of short-course antiretrovirals given to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) on temporal patterns of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk are not well defined. METHODS Women in Kenya received short-course zidovudine (ZDV), single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP), combination ZDV/sdNVP or short-course highly active(More)
BACKGROUND We set out to determine the relative roles of stigma versus health systems in non-uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 interventions: we conducted cross-sectional assessment of all consenting mothers accompanying infants for six-week immunizations. METHODS Between September 2008 and March 2009, mothers at six(More)
OBJECTIVES to estimate HIV-1 incidence and cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum. DESIGN retrospective study among women who were HIV seronegative during pregnancy. METHODS mothers accompanying their infants for routine 6-week immunizations at 6 maternal child health clinics in Nairobi and Western Kenya were tested for HIV-1(More)
A growing body of HCI4D research studies the use of SMS communication to deliver health and information services to underserved populations. This paper contributes a novel dimension to this field of study by examining if a hybrid computer-human SMS system can engage pregnant women in Kenya in health-related communication. Our approach leverages the(More)
BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major health problem in developing countries. The untreated disease is fatal, available treatment is expensive and often toxic, and drug resistance is increasing. Improved treatment options are needed. Paromomycin was shown to be an efficacious first-line treatment with low toxicity in India. METHODS This was a(More)
BACKGROUND HIV testing male partners of pregnant women may decrease HIV transmission to women and promote uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) interventions. However, it has been difficult to access male partners in antenatal care (ANC) clinics. We hypothesized that home visits to offer HIV testing to partners of women attending(More)
Innate natural killer (NK) cells are diverse at the single-cell level because of variegated expressions of activating and inhibitory receptors, yet the developmental roots and functional consequences of this diversity remain unknown. Because NK cells are critical for antiviral and antitumor responses, a better understanding of their diversity could lead to(More)
BACKGROUND Childbirth at health facilities is an important strategy to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, improve fetal outcomes, and reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Although access to antenatal care in Kenya is high (>90%), less than half of births occur at health facilities. This analysis aims to assess correlates of facility delivery(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral resistance after short-course regimens used to prevent mother-to-child transmission has consequences for later treatment. Directly comparing the prevalence of resistance after short-course regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine (ZDV/sdNVP) will provide critical(More)