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OBJECTIVES to estimate HIV-1 incidence and cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum. DESIGN retrospective study among women who were HIV seronegative during pregnancy. METHODS mothers accompanying their infants for routine 6-week immunizations at 6 maternal child health clinics in Nairobi and Western Kenya were tested for HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major health problem in developing countries. The untreated disease is fatal, available treatment is expensive and often toxic, and drug resistance is increasing. Improved treatment options are needed. Paromomycin was shown to be an efficacious first-line treatment with low toxicity in India. METHODS This was a(More)
BACKGROUND We set out to determine the relative roles of stigma versus health systems in non-uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 interventions: we conducted cross-sectional assessment of all consenting mothers accompanying infants for six-week immunizations. METHODS Between September 2008 and March 2009, mothers at six(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence and correlates of breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection were determined in intensively sampled women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. METHODS Women initiated HAART at 34 weeks of pregnancy. Breast milk was collected every 2-5 days during 1 month postpartum(More)
A growing body of HCI4D research studies the use of SMS communication to deliver health and information services to underserved populations. This paper contributes a novel dimension to this field of study by examining if a hybrid computer-human SMS system can engage pregnant women in Kenya in health-related communication. Our approach leverages the(More)
Innate natural killer (NK) cells are diverse at the single-cell level because of variegated expressions of activating and inhibitory receptors, yet the developmental roots and functional consequences of this diversity remain unknown. Because NK cells are critical for antiviral and antitumor responses, a better understanding of their diversity could lead to(More)
INTRODUCTION Facility-based assessments of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs may overestimate population coverage. There are few community-based studies that evaluate PMTCT coverage and uptake. METHODS During 2011, a cross-sectional community survey among women who gave birth in the prior year was performed using the(More)
INTRODUCTION More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing(More)
BACKGROUND Male partner HIV testing and counseling (HTC) is associated with enhanced uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), yet male HTC during pregnancy remains low. Identifying settings preferred by pregnant women and their male partners may improve male involvement in PMTCT. METHODS Participants in a randomized clinical trial(More)
INTRODUCTION Male partner HIV testing has been recognized as an important component of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Scheduled home-based couple HIV testing may be an effective strategy to reach men. METHODS Women attending their first antenatal visit at Kisumu County Hospital in Kenya were randomized to home-based education and HIV(More)