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OBJECTIVES to estimate HIV-1 incidence and cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum. DESIGN retrospective study among women who were HIV seronegative during pregnancy. METHODS mothers accompanying their infants for routine 6-week immunizations at 6 maternal child health clinics in Nairobi and Western Kenya were tested for HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND Childbirth at health facilities is an important strategy to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, improve fetal outcomes, and reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Although access to antenatal care in Kenya is high (>90%), less than half of births occur at health facilities. This analysis aims to assess correlates of facility delivery(More)
BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major health problem in developing countries. The untreated disease is fatal, available treatment is expensive and often toxic, and drug resistance is increasing. Improved treatment options are needed. Paromomycin was shown to be an efficacious first-line treatment with low toxicity in India. METHODS This was a(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of short-course antiretrovirals given to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) on temporal patterns of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk are not well defined. METHODS Women in Kenya received short-course zidovudine (ZDV), single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP), combination ZDV/sdNVP or short-course highly active(More)
BACKGROUND Defining the effect of antiretroviral regimens on breast milk HIV type-1 (HIV-1) levels is useful to inform the rational design of strategies to decrease perinatal HIV-1 transmission. METHODS Pregnant HIV-1 seropositive women (CD4+ T-cell count >250 and <500 cells/mm3) electing to breastfeed in Nairobi, Kenya were randomized to highly active(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral resistance after short-course regimens used to prevent mother-to-child transmission has consequences for later treatment. Directly comparing the prevalence of resistance after short-course regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine (ZDV/sdNVP) will provide critical(More)
BACKGROUND HIV testing male partners of pregnant women may decrease HIV transmission to women and promote uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) interventions. However, it has been difficult to access male partners in antenatal care (ANC) clinics. We hypothesized that home visits to offer HIV testing to partners of women attending(More)
BACKGROUND We set out to determine the relative roles of stigma versus health systems in non-uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 interventions: we conducted cross-sectional assessment of all consenting mothers accompanying infants for six-week immunizations. METHODS Between September 2008 and March 2009, mothers at six(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine contraceptive use among HIV infected women attending Comprehensive Care Centre at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN Hospital based cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING Comprehensive Care Centre (CCC), Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS The study group was non-pregnant HIV positive women on follow up at the CCC. A total(More)