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OBJECTIVE To investigate whether placebo effects can experimentally be separated into the response to three components-assessment and observation, a therapeutic ritual (placebo treatment), and a supportive patient-practitioner relationship-and then progressively combined to produce incremental clinical improvement in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.(More)
In addition to pathology in the gray matter, there are also abnormalities in the white matter in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sulfatide species are a class of myelin-specific sphingolipids and are involved in certain diseases of the central nervous system. To assess whether sulfatide content in gray and white matter in human subjects is associated with both(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether placebo responses can be explained by characteristics of the patient, the practitioner, or their interpersonal interaction. METHODS We performed an analysis of videotape and psychometric data from a clinical trial of patients with irritable bowel syndrome who were treated with placebo acupuncture in either a warm empathic(More)
Identifying patients who are potential placebo responders has major implications for clinical practice and trial design. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an important enzyme in dopamine catabolism plays a key role in processes associated with the placebo effect such as reward, pain, memory and learning. We hypothesized that the COMT functional val158met(More)
BACKGROUND Placebo treatment can significantly influence subjective symptoms. However, it is widely believed that response to placebo requires concealment or deception. We tested whether open-label placebo (non-deceptive and non-concealed administration) is superior to a no-treatment control with matched patient-provider interactions in the treatment of(More)
Patients in the placebo arms of randomized controlled trials (RCT) often experience positive changes from baseline. While multiple theories concerning such "placebo effects" exist, peculiarly, none has been informed by actual interviews of patients undergoing placebo treatment. Here, we report on a qualitative study (n = 27) embedded within a RCT (n = 262)(More)
The placebo effect has been the subject of much controversy. For a scientific investigation of placebo effects to advance it is important to establish whether a placebo response in any particular illness is reliable - i.e., if there is a response to a single placebo administration there will also be a placebo response to the repeated administration of a(More)
BACKGROUND In prospective experimental studies in patients with asthma, it is difficult to determine whether responses to placebo differ from the natural course of physiological changes that occur without any intervention. We compared the effects of a bronchodilator, two placebo interventions, and no intervention on outcomes in patients with asthma. (More)
The scientific discovery of novel training paradigms has yielded better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity, learning and development. This study is a first step in evaluating Tai Chi (TC), the Chinese slow-motion meditative exercise, as a training paradigm that, while not engaging in direct tactile stimulus training, elicits(More)
OBJECTIVES Although constipation is typically managed in an outpatient setting, there is an increasing trend in the frequency of constipation-related hospital visits. The aim of this study was to analyze trends related to chronic constipation (CC) in the United States with respect to emergency department (ED) visits, patient and hospital characteristics,(More)