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Two refined structures, differing in alkali metal ion content, of the bifunctional, pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme dialkylglycine decarboxylase (DGD) are presented in detail. The enzyme is an alpha 4 tetramer, built up as a dimer of dimers, with a subunit molecular mass of 46.5 kDa. The fold of DGD is similar to those of aspartate aminotransferase,(More)
The crystal structures of four inhibitor complexes of dialkylglycine decarboxylase are reported. The enzyme does not undergo a domain closure, as does aspartate aminotransferase, upon inhibitor binding. Two active-site conformations have been observed in previous structures that differ in alkali metal ion content, and two active-site conformations have been(More)
The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme dialkylglycine decarboxylase (DGD) is activated by K+ and Rb+ ions, whereas Li+ and Na+ ions are inhibitory. A binding site for alkali metal ions close to the active site (site 1) was discovered in the crystal structure of DGD, and an exchange of K+ for Na+ at this site was shown to affect the conformation of two(More)
A 3969-base pair PstI-PstI fragment of Pseudomonas cepacia DNA containing the gene for the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent 2,2-dialkylglycine decarboxylase (pyruvate) (EC 4.1.1.64) was cloned in Escherichia coli. The insert was sequenced by the dideoxy method using nested deletions from both ends, revealing a central 1302-base pair region that codes for(More)
The pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme dialkylglycine decarboxylase (E.C. 4.1.1.64) has been crystallized by vapor diffusion from a 15% polyethyleneglycol solution with sodium pyruvate as coprecipitant. The space group of the crystals is either P6(2)22 or the enantiomorph, P6(4)22, with one subunit of 46,500 Da per asymmetric unit. The unit cell has(More)
Spatial disorientation (SD) is a normal human response to accelerations in flight. Its cost to the US military is over $300 million per year, with comparable costs to US civil aviation. Despite significantly increased research over the past decade, the rate of accidents caused by SD has not decreased. While the most recent research emphases have been on(More)
Dialkylglycine decarboxylase (DGD) is a pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzyme that catalyzes both decarboxylation and transamination in its normal catalytic cycle. DGD uses stereoelectronic effects to control its unusual reaction specificity. X-ray crystallographic structures of DGD suggest that Q52 is important in maintaining the substrate carboxylate in a(More)
INTRODUCTION Aviation spatial disorientation mishaps remain a concern, especially due to their fatality rate. Some of the most insidious disorientations are due to vestibular stimuli in the absence of visual cues. A category of such disorientations are known as somatogyral illusions. METHODS To determine the effects of spin rate and duration on the(More)
This tutorial will present a methodology for modeling of human performance using multiple resource theory within a discrete event simulation. Participants will gain an understanding of why modeling human performance can be important and how workload models can be used to support system design. This presentation will include the theoretical background as(More)