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CONTEXT Immune suppression after organ transplantation is associated with a markedly increased risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer and a few virus-associated cancers. Although it is generally accepted that other cancers do not occur at increased rates, there have been few long-term population-based cohort studies performed. OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence(More)
BACKGROUND Needle-exchange programmes (NEPs) are potentially a key strategy for containing the spread of HIV infection among injecting drug users, but their implementation has been limited by uncertainty about their effectiveness. We used an ecological study design to compare changes over time in HIV seroprevalence in injecting drug users worldwide, for(More)
A large number of studies have reported on spontaneous viral clearance rates in acute hepatitis C infection, however most have been small, and reported rates have varied quite widely. To improve the precision of the estimated rate of spontaneous viral clearance, a systematic review was conducted of longitudinal studies. Factors associated with viral(More)
BACKGROUND A consensus statement released on behalf of the Swiss Federal Commission for HIV/AIDS suggests that people receiving effective antiretroviral therapy-ie, those with undetectable plasma HIV RNA (<40 copies per mL)-are sexually non-infectious. We analysed the implications of this statement at a population level. METHODS We used a simple(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the protective efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) against AIDS dementia complex (ADC) relative to other initial AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs), Australian AIDS notification data over recent years were examined. METHODS All initial ADIs in Australia over the period 1992-1997 were included. Three initial ADI(More)
PURPOSE To describe and contextualize changes in rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) notifications in men who have sex with men (MSM) in eight countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States) from 1996-2005. METHODS We analyzed trends in HIV notification rates from 1996-2000 and 2000-2005 by(More)
AIMS To examine the long-term impact of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) on mortality, re-incarceration and hepatitis C seroconversion in imprisoned male heroin users. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS The study cohort comprised 382 imprisoned male heroin users who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of prison-based MMT in 1997/98.(More)
The error-prone replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enables it to continuously evade host CD8+ T-cell responses. The observed transmission, and potential accumulation, of CD8+ T-cell escape mutations in the population may suggest a gradual adaptation of HIV-1 to immune pressures. Recent reports, however, have highlighted the(More)
During acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, early host cellular immune responses drive viral evolution. The rates and extent of these mutations, however, remain incompletely characterized. In a cohort of 98 individuals newly infected with HIV-1 subtype B, we longitudinally characterized the rates and extent of HLA-mediated escape and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on survival following AIDS dementia complex (ADC). METHODS Australian AIDS notification data in the period 1993-2000 were examined. In order to examine the impact of HAART, two periods of AIDS diagnoses were chosen: pre-HAART (1993-1995) and HAART(More)