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A central neuronal network that regulates respiration may include hypothalamic neurons that produce orexin, a peptide that influences sleep and arousal. In these experiments, we investigated 1) projections of orexin-containing neurons to the pre-Botzinger region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla that regulates rhythmic breathing and to phrenic(More)
Previous studies have shown that molecules of the taste transduction pathway may serve as biochemical markers for chemoreceptive cells in respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that brainstem neurons contain signaling molecules similar to those in taste buds which may sense the chemical composition of brain(More)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) represents a family of related peptides originally isolated from cardiac atria that have potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant properties. ANP has previously been localized in neurons of the rat brain in regions subserving cardiovascular functions and fluid/electrolyte balance and has been localized in astroglia of(More)
Recent in vitro data suggest that astrocytes may modulate respiration. To examine this question in vivo, we treated 5-day-old rat pups with methionine sulfoximine (MS), a compound that alters carbohydrate and glutamate metabolism in astrocytes, but not neurons. MS-treated pups displayed a reduced breathing frequency (f) in baseline conditions relative to(More)
To determine whether or not impaired male sex behavior in obese male Zucker rats is accompanied by any anatomical alterations in a hypothalamic area implicated in the control of sex behavior, 6 lean and 5 obese male Zucker rats were studied behaviorally and anatomically at 14 months of age. Obese males showed markedly decreased male sex behavior relative to(More)
We have previously reported that a specialized subpopulation of astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus show an unusually intense immunoreactivity for brain fatty acid binding protein (bFABP). Since bFABP has been shown to regulate the activity of an enzyme, fatty acid synthase, that has a potent influence upon the regulation of feeding by the(More)
Anorexia nervosa occurs predominantly in young women. Also, recent data suggest that a heritable, genetic defect may contribute to this feeding disorder. These observations support the hypothesis that an inherited, abnormal response of the brain to rising levels of estrogens at puberty may contribute to the symptoms of weight loss in anorexia. To evaluate(More)
A specialized subtype of astrocyte, the Gomori-positive (GP) astrocyte, is unusually abundant and prominent in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. GP astrocytes possess cytoplasmic granules derived from degenerating mitochondria. GP granules are highly stained by Gomori's chrome alum hematoxylin stain, by the Perl's reaction for iron, or by toluidine(More)
A recent study demonstrated that hypothalamic lesions induced by goldthioglucose (GTG) in mice produced an increase in neuronal immunoreactivity for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Since NPY is a potent stimulator of feeding, this increase represented a potential explanation for the hyperphagia seen after GTG lesions. To examine(More)