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Previous studies have shown that molecules of the taste transduction pathway may serve as biochemical markers for chemoreceptive cells in respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that brainstem neurons contain signaling molecules similar to those in taste buds which may sense the chemical composition of brain(More)
A central neuronal network that regulates respiration may include hypothalamic neurons that produce orexin, a peptide that influences sleep and arousal. In these experiments, we investigated 1) projections of orexin-containing neurons to the pre-Botzinger region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla that regulates rhythmic breathing and to phrenic(More)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) represents a family of related peptides originally isolated from cardiac atria that have potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant properties. ANP has previously been localized in neurons of the rat brain in regions subserving cardiovascular functions and fluid/electrolyte balance and has been localized in astroglia of(More)
The pursuit for more sensitive NMR probes culminated with development of the cryogenic cooled NMR probe. A key factor for the sensitivity is the overall resistance of RF circuitry and sample. Lowering the coil temperature to approximately 25 K and the use of superconducting coil material has greatly reduced the resistance contribution of the hardware.(More)
Folate binds to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) to form a binary complex whose structure maintains the overall configuration of the enzyme; however, some significant changes are evident when a comparison is made to the enzyme. The structure of DHFR1 from the halophilic Halopherax volcanii was solved in its folate-bound form using nuclear magnetic resonance(More)
Gomori-positive (GP) astrocytes are a subset of brain astrocytes with highly stained cytoplasmic granules that arise from the degradation of mitochondria. The GP granules of these astrocytes are most prominent in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, but can also be detected in the olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, habenula, and other selected brain regions.(More)
A recent study demonstrated that hypothalamic lesions induced by goldthioglucose (GTG) in mice produced an increase in neuronal immunoreactivity for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Since NPY is a potent stimulator of feeding, this increase represented a potential explanation for the hyperphagia seen after GTG lesions. To examine(More)
A previous three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat hypothalamus revealed an organization of nuclei into three major clusters. This clustering may relate to the presence of three hypothalamic anlagen in the embryo and to a restriction of marker proteins and transcription factors to specific regions of the hypothalamus during development. To see if a(More)
Recent in vitro data suggest that astrocytes may modulate respiration. To examine this question in vivo, we treated 5-day-old rat pups with methionine sulfoximine (MS), a compound that alters carbohydrate and glutamate metabolism in astrocytes, but not neurons. MS-treated pups displayed a reduced breathing frequency (f) in baseline conditions relative to(More)