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Pregnenolone sulfate (PREG S) is synthesized in the nervous system and is a major neurosteroid in the rat brain. Its concentrations were measured in the hippocampus and other brain areas of single adult and aged (22-24 month-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Significantly lower levels were found in aged rats, although the values were widely scattered and(More)
A central neuronal network that regulates respiration may include hypothalamic neurons that produce orexin, a peptide that influences sleep and arousal. In these experiments, we investigated 1) projections of orexin-containing neurons to the pre-Botzinger region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla that regulates rhythmic breathing and to phrenic(More)
Previous studies have shown that molecules of the taste transduction pathway may serve as biochemical markers for chemoreceptive cells in respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that brainstem neurons contain signaling molecules similar to those in taste buds which may sense the chemical composition of brain(More)
Two brain regions - the basomedial hypothalamus and area postrema (AP) - react to changes in circulating glucose levels by altering feeding behavior and the secretion of pituitary and non-pituitary hormones. The precise identity of cells responding to glucose in these regions is uncertain. The recent detection of high-capacity glucose transporter proteins(More)
Pregnenolone (P) and dehydroepiandrosterone (D) accumulate in the brain as unconjugated steroids and their sulfate (S) and fatty acid (L) esters. The microsomal acyl-transferase activity is highest in immature (1-3 weeks old) male rats. The immunocytochemical and biochemical evidence for P biosynthesis by differentiated oligodendrocytes is reviewed. The(More)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) represents a family of related peptides originally isolated from cardiac atria that have potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant properties. ANP has previously been localized in neurons of the rat brain in regions subserving cardiovascular functions and fluid/electrolyte balance and has been localized in astroglia of(More)
Recent in vitro data suggest that astrocytes may modulate respiration. To examine this question in vivo, we treated 5-day-old rat pups with methionine sulfoximine (MS), a compound that alters carbohydrate and glutamate metabolism in astrocytes, but not neurons. MS-treated pups displayed a reduced breathing frequency (f) in baseline conditions relative to(More)
omega-Grammotoxin SIA, a peptidergic blocker of voltage-sensitive calcium channel (VSCC) responses, was purified from Grammostola spatulata (tarantula spider) venom by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Protease-sensitive biological activity was monitored by determining the inhibition of K(+)-stimulated influx of 45Ca2+ into rat brain(More)
To determine whether or not impaired male sex behavior in obese male Zucker rats is accompanied by any anatomical alterations in a hypothalamic area implicated in the control of sex behavior, 6 lean and 5 obese male Zucker rats were studied behaviorally and anatomically at 14 months of age. Obese males showed markedly decreased male sex behavior relative to(More)