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BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO*) plays a pivotal role as a leishmanicidal agent in mouse macrophages. NO* resistant Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been associated with a severe outcome of these diseases. METHODS In this study we evaluated the in vitro toxicity of nitric oxide for the promastigote stages of Leishmania (Viannia)(More)
The high-output pathway of nitric oxide production helps protect mice from infection by several pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, based on studies of cells cultured from blood, it is controversial whether human mononuclear phagocytes can express the corresponding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS;NOS2). The present study examined(More)
Tuberculosis occurring with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a serious and growing public health problem. We have carried out a randomised clinical trial of a 12-month course of isoniazid plus vitamin B6 versus vitamin B6 alone in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, to assess the efficacy of isoniazid in preventing active tuberculosis in symptom-free(More)
Immune mediators associated with human tuberculosis (TB) remain poorly defined. This study quantified levels of lung immune mediator gene expression at the time of diagnosis and during anti-TB treatment using cells obtained by induced sputum. Upon comparison to patients with other infectious lung diseases and volunteers, active pulmonary TB cases expressed(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations associated with resistance to rifampin or streptomycin have been reported for W/Beijing and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) strain families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A few studies with limited sample sizes have separately evaluated mutations in katG, ahpC and inhA genes that are associated with isoniazid (INH) resistance.(More)
—This paper studies the approximation ability of continuous time recurrent neural networks to dynamical time-variant systems. It proves that any finite time trajectory of a given dynam-ical time-variant system can be approximated by the internal state of a continuous-time recurrent neural network. Given several special forms of dynamical time-variant(More)
BACKGROUND The highly homologous PE_PGRS (Proline-glutamic acid_polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence) genes are members of the PE multigene family which is found only in mycobacteria. PE genes are particularly abundant within the genomes of pathogenic mycobacteria where they seem to have expanded as a result of gene duplication events. PE_PGRS genes are(More)
—This paper presents two-dimensional (2-D) system theory based iterative learning control (ILC) methods for linear continuous multivariable systems with time delays in state or with time delays in input. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for convergence of the proposed ILC rules. In this paper, we demonstrate that the 2-D linear(More)