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Caenorhabditis elegans homologues of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumour suppressor complex specify cell lineage during development. Here we show that mutations in Rb pathway components enhance RNA interference (RNAi) and cause somatic cells to express genes and elaborate perinuclear structures normally limited to germline-specific P granules. Furthermore,(More)
Endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) regulate diverse gene expression programs in eukaryotes by either binding and cleaving mRNA targets or mediating heterochromatin formation; however, the mechanisms of endo-siRNA biogenesis, sorting, and target regulation remain poorly understood. Here we report the identification and function of a specific(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute an extensive class of noncoding RNAs that are thought to regulate the expression of target genes via complementary base-pair interactions. To date, cloning has identified over 200 miRNAs from diverse eukaryotic organisms. Despite their success, such biochemical approaches are skewed toward identifying abundant miRNAs, unlike(More)
We show that miR-1, a conserved muscle-specific microRNA, regulates aspects of both pre- and postsynaptic function at C. elegans neuromuscular junctions. miR-1 regulates the expression level of two nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits (UNC-29 and UNC-63), thereby altering muscle sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh). miR-1 also regulates the(More)
We systematically generated large-scale data sets to improve genome annotation for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a key model organism. These data sets include transcriptome profiling across a developmental time course, genome-wide identification of transcription factor-binding sites, and maps of chromatin organization. From this, we created more(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) of target genes is triggered by double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) processed by conserved nucleases and accessory factors. To identify the genetic components required for RNAi, we performed a genome-wide screen using an engineered RNAi sensor strain of Caenorhabditis elegans. The RNAi screen identified 90 genes. These included Piwi/PAZ(More)
Three-prime untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of metazoan messenger RNAs (mRNAs) contain numerous regulatory elements, yet remain largely uncharacterized. Using polyA capture, 3' rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends, full-length cDNAs, and RNA-seq, we defined approximately 26,000 distinct 3'UTRs in Caenorhabditis elegans for approximately 85% of(More)
Localized translation in mammalian dendrites may play a role in synaptic plasticity and contribute to the molecular basis for learning and memory. The regulatory mechanisms that control localized translation in neurons are not well understood. We propose a role for microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs, as mediators of neuronal translational(More)
Transposable elements (TEs) and DNA repeats are commonly targeted by DNA and histone methylation to achieve epigenetic gene silencing. We isolated mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, AtMORC1 and AtMORC6, which cause derepression of DNA-methylated genes and TEs but no losses of DNA or histone methylation. AtMORC1 and AtMORC6 are members of the conserved(More)
Two experiments were conducted to compare thec ries of the functional organization of spatial working memory within the human prefrontal cortex. In Experiment I, memory set size for locations was parametrically varied, allowing for the assessment of BOLD signal across maintenance requirements. In the sec ond experiment, manipulation of spatial information(More)