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Caenorhabditis elegans homologues of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumour suppressor complex specify cell lineage during development. Here we show that mutations in Rb pathway components enhance RNA interference (RNAi) and cause somatic cells to express genes and elaborate perinuclear structures normally limited to germline-specific P granules. Furthermore,(More)
We systematically generated large-scale data sets to improve genome annotation for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a key model organism. These data sets include transcriptome profiling across a developmental time course, genome-wide identification of transcription factor-binding sites, and maps of chromatin organization. From this, we created more(More)
We show that miR-1, a conserved muscle-specific microRNA, regulates aspects of both pre- and postsynaptic function at C. elegans neuromuscular junctions. miR-1 regulates the expression level of two nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits (UNC-29 and UNC-63), thereby altering muscle sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh). miR-1 also regulates the(More)
Three-prime untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of metazoan messenger RNAs (mRNAs) contain numerous regulatory elements, yet remain largely uncharacterized. Using polyA capture, 3' rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends, full-length cDNAs, and RNA-seq, we defined approximately 26,000 distinct 3'UTRs in Caenorhabditis elegans for approximately 85% of(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) of target genes is triggered by double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) processed by conserved nucleases and accessory factors. To identify the genetic components required for RNAi, we performed a genome-wide screen using an engineered RNAi sensor strain of Caenorhabditis elegans. The RNAi screen identified 90 genes. These included Piwi/PAZ(More)
Localized translation in mammalian dendrites may play a role in synaptic plasticity and contribute to the molecular basis for learning and memory. The regulatory mechanisms that control localized translation in neurons are not well understood. We propose a role for microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs, as mediators of neuronal translational(More)
Genetic and biochemical analyses of RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways have revealed proteins such as Argonaute and Dicer as essential cofactors that process and present small RNAs to their targets. Well-validated small RNA pathway cofactors such as these show distinctive patterns of conservation or divergence in particular animal, plant,(More)
Transposable elements (TEs) and DNA repeats are commonly targeted by DNA and histone methylation to achieve epigenetic gene silencing. We isolated mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, AtMORC1 and AtMORC6, which cause derepression of DNA-methylated genes and TEs but no losses of DNA or histone methylation. AtMORC1 and AtMORC6 are members of the conserved(More)
Small RNAs regulate diverse biological processes by directing effector proteins called Argonautes to silence complementary mRNAs. Maturation of some classes of small RNAs involves terminal 2'-O-methylation to prevent degradation. This modification is catalyzed by members of the conserved HEN1 RNA methyltransferase family. In animals, Piwi-interacting RNAs(More)
In addition to several hundred microRNAs, C. elegans produces thousands of other small RNAs targeting coding genes, pseudogenes, transposons, and other noncoding RNAs. Here we review what is currently known about these endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), providing an overview of their biogenesis, their associated(More)