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Oligodendrocyte progenitors originate near the floor plate of the spinal cord, then proliferate and migrate throughout the cord before giving rise to oligodendrocytes. Progenitor cell proliferation stops before birth because the cell cycle slows down, linked to an increase in differentiation and death. Experiments with transgenic mice show that(More)
A mouse platelet-derived growth factor A chain (PDGF-A) null allele is shown to be homozygous lethal, with two distinct restriction points, one prenatally before E10 and one postnatally. Postnatally surviving PDGF-A-deficient mice develop lung emphysema secondary to the failure of alveolar septation. This is apparently caused by the loss of alveolar(More)
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) act as signals in the developing limb and can maintain proliferation of limb bud mesenchyme cells. Remarkably, beads soaked in FGF-1, FGF-2, or FGF-4 and placed in the presumptive flank of chick embryos induce formation of ectopic limb buds, which can develop into complete limbs. The entire flank can produce additional(More)
Fibroblast growth factors were first characterized twenty years ago as mitogens of cultured fibroblasts. Despite a wealth of data from experiments in vitro, insights have begun to emerge only recently on the normal function of these growth factors in mice and humans, as a result of studies of natural and experimental mutations in the factors and their(More)
The transmembrane receptor 'ROR2' resembles members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family of signalling receptors in sequence but its' signal transduction mechanisms remain enigmatic. This problem has particular importance because mutations in ROR2 are associated with two human skeletal dysmorphology syndromes, recessive Robinow Syndrome (RS) and dominant(More)
The aim of this work is twofold. First, we propose an high level textual modelling language, which is meant to be biologically intuitive and hence easily usable by life scientists in modelling intra-cellular systems. Secondly, we provide an automatic translation of the proposed language into Beta-binders, a bio-inspired process calculus, which allows life(More)
The potential for modulation of growth factor signaling by endocytic trafficking of receptors is well recognized, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We examined the regulation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling by Sprouty related with EVH1 (Ena/VASP homology 1) domain (Spred), a family of signaling inhibitors with proposed(More)
BACKGROUND Fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane (FLRT) proteins have dual properties as regulators of cell adhesion and potentiators of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) mediated signalling. The mechanism by which the latter is achieved is still unknown and is the subject of this investigation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Here we show that FLRT1 is a target for(More)
BACKGROUND Appropriately formulated quantitative computational models can support researchers in understanding the dynamic behaviour of biological pathways and support hypothesis formulation and selection by "in silico" experimentation. An obstacle to widespread adoption of this approach is the requirement to formulate a biological pathway as machine(More)
Within the mammalian genome, there are many multimember gene families that encode membrane proteins with extracellular leucine rich repeats which are thought to act as cell adhesion or signalling molecules. We previously showed that the members of the NLRR gene family are expressed in a developmentally restricted manner in the mouse with NLRR-1 being(More)