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Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cell lines established directly from the early embryo which can contribute differentiated progeny to all adult tissues, including the germ-cell lineage, after re-incorporation into the normal embryo. They provide both a cellular vector for the generation of transgenic animals and a useful system for the(More)
Adenosine is released from metabolically active cells by facilitated diffusion, and is generated extracellularly by degradation of released ATP. It is a potent biological mediator that modulates the activity of numerous cell types, including various neuronal populations, platelets, neutrophils and mast cells, and smooth muscle cells in bronchi and(More)
Oligodendrocyte progenitors originate near the floor plate of the spinal cord, then proliferate and migrate throughout the cord before giving rise to oligodendrocytes. Progenitor cell proliferation stops before birth because the cell cycle slows down, linked to an increase in differentiation and death. Experiments with transgenic mice show that(More)
A mouse platelet-derived growth factor A chain (PDGF-A) null allele is shown to be homozygous lethal, with two distinct restriction points, one prenatally before E10 and one postnatally. Postnatally surviving PDGF-A-deficient mice develop lung emphysema secondary to the failure of alveolar septation. This is apparently caused by the loss of alveolar(More)
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) act as signals in the developing limb and can maintain proliferation of limb bud mesenchyme cells. Remarkably, beads soaked in FGF-1, FGF-2, or FGF-4 and placed in the presumptive flank of chick embryos induce formation of ectopic limb buds, which can develop into complete limbs. The entire flank can produce additional(More)
Conditioning injury to adult mammalian sensory neurons enhances their regeneration potential. Here we show that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a fundamental component of the conditioning response. Conditioning injury in vivo significantly increases the intrinsic growth capacity of sensory neurons in vitro from LIF+/+ mice. This conditioning effect is(More)
The structure of murine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.0 A resolution. The main chain fold conforms to the four alpha-helix bundle topology previously observed for several members of the hematopoietic cytokine family. Of these, LIF shows closest structural homology to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor(More)
In early embryonic development the basic body plan arises because cells in different regions become programmed to follow different developmental pathways. We have proposed that in the early amphibian embryo this process of regional specification arises from the action of three different inducing factors, or morphogens, but we have not until now had any idea(More)
Fibroblast growth factors were first characterized twenty years ago as mitogens of cultured fibroblasts. Despite a wealth of data from experiments in vitro, insights have begun to emerge only recently on the normal function of these growth factors in mice and humans, as a result of studies of natural and experimental mutations in the factors and their(More)
The transmembrane receptor 'ROR2' resembles members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family of signalling receptors in sequence but its' signal transduction mechanisms remain enigmatic. This problem has particular importance because mutations in ROR2 are associated with two human skeletal dysmorphology syndromes, recessive Robinow Syndrome (RS) and dominant(More)