John K. Gohagan

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BACKGROUND The prostate component of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was undertaken to determine whether there is a reduction in prostate cancer mortality from screening using serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and digital rectal examination (DRE). Mortality after 7-10 years of follow-up has been reported(More)
BACKGROUND The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a(More)
The objectives of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial are to determine in screenees ages 55-74 at entry whether screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy (60-cm sigmoidoscope) can reduce mortality from colorectal cancer, whether screening with chest X-ray can reduce mortality from lung cancer, whether screening men with digital(More)
CONTEXT Screening for ovarian cancer with cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) and transvaginal ultrasound has an unknown effect on mortality. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of screening for ovarian cancer on mortality in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized controlled trial of(More)
The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is enrolling 148,000 men and women ages 55-74 at ten screening centers nationwide with balanced randomization to intervention and control arms. For prostate cancer, men receive a digital rectal examination and a blood test for prostate-specific antigen. For lung cancer, men and women(More)
The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is a randomized multicenter study comparing low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) with chest radiography in the screening of older current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Five-year survival rates approach 70%(More)
CONTEXT The effect on mortality of screening for lung cancer with modern chest radiographs is unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect on mortality of screening for lung cancer using radiographs in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized controlled trial that involved(More)
OBJECTIVE Ovarian cancer screening with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and CA-125 was evaluated in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Trial. STUDY DESIGN This was a randomized controlled trial of screening versus usual care. Baseline screening results are reported. RESULTS Of 39,115 women randomized to receive screening, 28,816 received at(More)
Two large-scale randomized screening trials, the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovary (PLCO) cancer trial in the USA and the European Randomized Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial in Europe are currently under way, aimed at assessing whether screening reduces prostate cancer mortality. Up to the end of 1998, 102,691 men have been randomized to the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The relationship between distal and proximal colonic findings is uncertain. Thus, there is no consensus on which findings on screening flexible sigmoidoscopy should trigger colonoscopy. METHODS We analyzed data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial to assess the relationship between distal and proximal(More)