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Animal models of human immunodeficiency virus 1, such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), provide the opportunities to dissect the mechanisms of early interactions of the virus with the central nervous system (CNS). The aims of the present study were to evaluate viral loads within CNS, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), ocular fluid, and the plasma of cats in(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylases are key oxygen-sensing enzymes that confer hypoxic sensitivity to transcriptional regulatory pathways including the hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Knockout of either HIF-1 or (IKKbeta-dependent) NF-kappaB pathways in intestinal epithelial cells promotes(More)
The algal polysaccharides laminarin (LAM) and fucoidan (FUC) have potent anti-inflammatory activities in the gastrointestinal tract. Our objective was to examine the impact of prior consumption of LAM and/or FUC on pathology and inflammation following a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) challenge in pigs. Pigs (n 7/group) were assigned to one of five(More)
A closed household of 26 cats in which feline coronavirus (FCoV), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were endemic was observed for 10 years. Each cat was seropositive for FCoV on at least one occasion and the infection was maintained by reinfection. After 10 years, three of six surviving cats were still seropositive. Only(More)
Immune responses induced with helminth parasites have been extensively studied, but there is limited information on those to Fasciola hepatica, especially on the subtype of T cell induced with this parasite. We investigated the local and systemic T cell responses of different strains of mice following oral infection with doses of metacercariae from F.(More)
Loss-of-function mutations in the FLG (filaggrin) gene cause the semidominant keratinizing disorder ichthyosis vulgaris and convey major genetic risk for atopic dermatitis (eczema), eczema-associated asthma and other allergic phenotypes. Several low-frequency FLG null alleles occur in Europeans and Asians, with a cumulative frequency of approximately 9% in(More)
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in the cat is a well-evaluated model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in man with both viruses associated with significant neuropathology. Although studies in both HIV and FIV infections have shown that virus enters the brain in the acute stages of disease, little is known of the mechanisms of(More)
Bovine uterine disease reduces milk yield, impairs fertility and has implications for animal welfare. During involution, the uterus is usually exposed to multiple potential bacterial pathogens which are cleared by successful orchestration of the local inflammatory response. Unsuccessful resolution leads to the development of disease. The aim of this study(More)
Endometrial epithelial cells play a critical role in mediating inflammatory mechanisms key to bacterial clearance and tissue re-modelling postpartum. This study characterised innate immune gene expression by bovine endometrial epithelial cells from three animals in response to Escherichia coli, a common cause of bovine uterine disease. Expression of key(More)
Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease. The causative agent, pathogenic Leptospira species, survives in the renal tubules of chronically infected hosts, from where leptospires are shed via urine into the environment. Infection of new hosts can present as an array of acute and chronic disease processes reflecting variations in host-pathogen interactions.(More)