John Jay Toole

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BACKGROUND Durable suppression of replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on the use of potent, well-tolerated antiretroviral regimens to which patients can easily adhere. METHODS We conducted an open-label, noninferiority study involving 517 patients with HIV infection who had not previously received antiretroviral therapy and who(More)
CONTEXT Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a once-daily nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF compared with stavudine in antiretroviral-naive patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective, randomized, double-blind study conducted at 81 centers in the United(More)
Aptamers are double-stranded DNA or single-stranded RNA molecules that bind specific molecular targets. Large randomly generated populations can be enriched in aptamers by in vitro selection and polymerase chain reaction. But so far single-stranded DNA has not been investigated for aptamer properties, nor has a target protein been considered that does not(More)
In a recent phase II clinical study, 13 chronic hepatitis B-infected patients treated daily with 30 mg adefovir dipivoxil for 12 weeks displayed a median 4.1-log10 decrease in plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA levels. The decline of viral load during therapy displayed a biphasic kinetic profile that was modeled to determine the efficacy of inhibition of(More)
BACKGROUND In antiretroviral-naive patients, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), and efavirenz (EFV) demonstrated superior outcomes compared with fixed-dose zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC) and EFV through 48 weeks. Results through a 96-week extension phase are presented. METHODS In this randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial,(More)
Molecules involved in the antigen receptor-dependent regulation of early T cell activation genes were investigated with the use of functional sequences of the T cell activation-specific enhancer of interleukin-2 (IL-2). One of these sequences forms a protein complex, NFAT-1, specifically with nuclear extracts of activated T cells. This complex appeared 10(More)
BACKGROUND As antiretroviral regimens for the treatment of HIV infection improve, trials providing data on long-term follow-up are increasingly important. METHODS A regimen of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), and efavirenz (EFV) demonstrated superior virologic, immunologic and morphologic effects compared with a regimen of(More)
DNA sequences capable of inducing oncogenic transformation of NIH3T3 mouse cells are found in a number of human tumour cell lines. When DNAs of these cell lines are applied to monolayer cultures of the mouse fibroblasts, foci of transformed cells are observed 2-3 weeks later. DNA from cells of such primary foci can be used in turn to induce foci in a second(More)
Using a novel in vitro selection/amplification technique, we have recently identified a new class of thrombin inhibitors based on single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. One oligonucleotide, GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG (thrombin, aptamer), showed potent anticoagulant activity in vitro. We have initiated pharmacologic studies in cynomolgus monkeys to study the thrombin(More)
cDNA clones encoding human factor V have been isolated from an oligo(dT)-primed human fetal liver cDNA library prepared with vector Charon 21A. The cDNA sequence of factor V from three overlapping clones includes a 6672-base-pair (bp) coding region, a 90-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 163-bp 3' untranslated region within which is a poly(A) tail. The(More)