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Mammary glands, like other skin appendages such as hair follicles and teeth, develop from the surface epithelium and underlying mesenchyme; however, the molecular controls of embryonic mammary development are largely unknown. We find that activation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway in the embryonic mouse mammary region coincides with(More)
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was originally discovered as the tumor product that causes humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. PTHrP is now known to be widely expressed in many normal fetal tissues where it may participate in the regulation of organogenesis. In this report, we document that overexpression of PTHrP in myoepithelial cells in the(More)
The transfer of calcium from mother to milk during lactation is poorly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) production and calcium transport in mammary epithelial cells are regulated by extracellular calcium acting through the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). The CaR becomes expressed on mammary(More)
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was discovered as a result of a search for the circulating factor secreted by cancers which causes the common paraneoplastic syndrome humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Since the identification of the peptide in 1982 and the cloning of the cDNA in 1987, it has become clear that PTHrP is a prohormone that is(More)
Prior reports have demonstrated that both parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and the type I PTH/PTHrP receptor are necessary for the proper development of the embryonic mammary gland in mice. Using a combination of loss-of-function and gain-of-function models, we now report that PTHrP regulates a series of cell fate decisions that are central to(More)
Emerging evidence suggests that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) serves as a regulator of the development and/or differentiation of a number of organs, including endochondral bone, the tooth, and the mammary gland. Although disruption of the PTHrP gene by homologous recombination results in a lethal chondrodystrophy, PTHrP-knockout mice that have(More)
The development of the embryonic mammary gland involves communication between the epidermis and mesenchyme and is coordinated temporally and spatially by various signaling pathways. Although many more genes are likely to control mammary gland development, functional roles have been identified for Wnt, fibroblast growth factor, and parathyroid(More)
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that signals in response to extracellular calcium and regulates parathyroid hormone secretion. The CaR is also expressed on normal mammary epithelial cells (MMECs), where it has been shown to inhibit secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and participate in the regulation(More)
Lactating mammals must supply large amounts of calcium to the mammary gland where it is transported across mammary epithelial cells and into milk. This demand for calcium is associated with transient loss of bone mass, triggered, in part, by the secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) from the mammary gland into the circulation. The(More)
After lactation, weaning causes mammary epithelial cell (MEC) apoptosis. MECs express the plasma membrane calcium-ATPase 2 (PMCA2), which transports calcium across the apical surface of the cells into milk. Here we show that PMCA2 is down-regulated early in mammary involution associated with changes in MEC shape. We demonstrate that loss of PMCA2 expression(More)