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Leishmania species cause a spectrum of human diseases in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. We have sequenced the 36 chromosomes of the 32.8-megabase haploid genome of Leishmania major (Friedlin strain) and predict 911 RNA genes, 39 pseudogenes, and 8272 protein-coding genes, of which 36% can be ascribed a putative function. These include genes(More)
African trypanosomes cause human sleeping sickness and livestock trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. We present the sequence and analysis of the 11 megabase-sized chromosomes of Trypanosoma brucei. The 26-megabase genome contains 9068 predicted genes, including approximately 900 pseudogenes and approximately 1700 T. brucei-specific genes. Large(More)
Aspergillus fumigatus is exceptional among microorganisms in being both a primary and opportunistic pathogen as well as a major allergen. Its conidia production is prolific, and so human respiratory tract exposure is almost constant. A. fumigatus is isolated from human habitats and vegetable compost heaps. In immunocompromised individuals, the incidence of(More)
Interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) is a pleomorphic cytokine produced by nucleated cells in response to viral infection. In patients, treatment with IFNalpha has side effects including cognitive impairment resembling subcortical dementia, which is a hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD). IFNalpha is increased in the CSF of HAD(More)
OBJECTIVE Current neuromonitoring techniques in severe human head injury often fail to detect the causes of clinical deterioration. A sensor is now available for continuous monitoring of brain oxygen tension, carbon dioxide tension, and pH values. In this study, brain tissue oxygen tension was used to differentiate patients at risk for brain ischemia and to(More)
The development of ethanol tolerance and dependence reflects neuroadaptive changes in response to continuous depression in synaptic activity. The present study used confocal imaging and electrophysiology procedures to assess the effects of prolonged ethanol exposure on NMDA receptor trafficking in cultures of hippocampal neurons. Neurons exposed to 50 mm(More)
Estrogen-mediated neuroprotection is observed in neurodegenerative disease and neurotrauma models; however, determining a mechanism for these effects has been difficult. We propose that estrogen may limit cell death in the nervous system tissue by inhibiting increases in intracellular free Ca(2+). Here, we present data using VSC 4.1 cell line, a ventral(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NRs) are ionotropic receptors activated by glutamate and the co-agonist glycine. Ethanol inhibits NMDA receptor function, although its site of action is undefined. We hypothesized that ethanol acts at specific amino acids contained within the transmembrane (TM) domains of the receptor. In this study, NR1 and NR2A(More)
The effects of selected local anesthetics on in vitro and in vivo measurements of dopamine transporter activity were determined to investigate the role of local anesthetic activity in the neuronal actions of cocaine. Cocaine inhibited [3H]2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane 1.5-naphthalenedisulfonate (CFT) binding and [3H]dopamine uptake with(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are important targets for drugs of abuse such as ethanol, toluene, and ketamine. Ligand-gated ion channels assembled from the NR1 and NR3 subunits have functional and pharmacological properties that are distinct from those of conventional NMDA receptors containing NR2 subunits. In the present study we used voltage-clamp(More)