John J. Skehel

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Hemagglutinin (HA) is the receptor-binding and membrane fusion glycoprotein of influenza virus and the target for infectivity-neutralizing antibodies. The structures of three conformations of the ectodomain of the 1968 Hong Kong influenza virus HA have been determined by X-ray crystallography: the single-chain precursor, HA0; the metastable neutral-pH(More)
Low pH induces a conformational change in the influenza virus haemagglutinin, which then mediates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. The three-dimensional structure of a fragment of the haemagglutinin in this conformation reveals a major refolding of the secondary and tertiary structure of the molecule. The apolar fusion peptide moves at least 100(More)
Here we describe a glycan microarray constructed by using standard robotic microarray printing technology to couple amine functionalized glycans to an amino-reactive glass slide. The array comprises 200 synthetic and natural glycan sequences representing major glycan structures of glycoproteins and glycolipids. The array has remarkable utility for profiling(More)
Fusion of viral and cellular membranes by the envelope glycoprotein gp120/gp41 effects entry of HIV-1 into the cell. The precursor, gp160, is cleaved post-translationally into gp120 and gp41 which remain non-covalently associated. Binding to both CD4 and a co-receptor leads to the conformational changes in gp120/gp41 needed for membrane fusion. We used(More)
The isolation of broadly neutralizing antibodies against influenza A viruses has been a long-sought goal for therapeutic approaches and vaccine design. Using a single-cell culture method for screening large numbers of human plasma cells, we isolated a neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognized the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of all 16 subtypes and(More)
The worldwide spread of H5N1 avian influenza has raised concerns that this virus might acquire the ability to pass readily among humans and cause a pandemic. Two anti-influenza drugs currently being used to treat infected patients are oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza), both of which target the neuraminidase enzyme of the virus. Reports of the(More)
The haemagglutinin glycoprotein of influenza virus is a trimer comprising two structurally distinct regions: a triple-stranded coiled-coil of alpha-helices extends 76 A from the membrane and a globular region of antiparallel beta-sheet, which contains the receptor binding site and the variable antigenic determinants, is positioned on top of this stem. Each(More)
Envelope glycoproteins of human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) undergo a series of conformational changes when they interact with receptor (CD4) and co-receptor on the surface of a potential host cell, leading ultimately to fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Structures of fragments of gp120 and gp41 from the envelope protein are known,(More)