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Parasympathetic activity is often reduced in hypertension and can elicit anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus we hypothesized that chronic vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) may alleviate cardiovascular end-organ damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Vagal nerve stimulators were implanted, a high-salt diet initiated, and the stimulators turned on(More)
Microcirculatory dysfunction may cause tissue malperfusion and progression to organ failure in the later stages of sepsis, but the role of smooth muscle contractile dysfunction is uncertain. Mice were given intraperitoneal LPS, and mesenteric arteries were harvested at 6-h intervals for analyses of gene expression and contractile function by wire myography.(More)
There is evidence for developmental origins of vascular dysfunction yet little understanding of maturation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of regional circulations. We measured maturational changes in expression of myosin phosphatase (MP) and the broader VSM gene program in relation to mesenteric small resistance artery (SRA) function. We then tested the(More)
We examined the effect of stress in the first 2 wk of life induced by brief periods of daily maternal separation on developmental programming of rat small resistance mesenteric arteries (MAs). In MAs of littermate controls, mRNAs encoding mediators of vasoconstriction, including the α1a-adrenergic receptor, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, and CPI-17, the(More)
Deep sequencing of RNA samples from rat small mesenteric arteries (MA) and aorta (AO) identified common and unique features of their gene programs. ~5% of mRNAs were quantitatively differentially expressed in MA versus AO. Unique transcriptional control in MA smooth muscle is suggested by the selective or enriched expression of transcription factors Nkx2-3,(More)
Each regional circulation has unique requirements for blood flow and thus unique mechanisms by which it is regulated. In this review we consider the role of smooth muscle contractile diversity in determining the unique properties of selected regional circulations and its potential influence on drug targeting in disease. Functionally smooth muscle diversity(More)
Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, testosterone, and spontaneously hypertensive rat Y chromosome (SHR Yc) play a role in a genetic model of hypertension. Male rats with the SHR Yc and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) autosomes (denoted SHR/y) exhibit these characteristics when compared to rats with the WKY Yc and WKY autosomes (denoted WKY). We(More)
BACKGROUND The etiology of preeclampsia remains unclear. Animal modeling of preeclampsia has been useful; however, no model to date represents episodic changes in uteroplacental blood flow that may occur in preeclampsia. OBJECTIVE To develop a gravid rat model characterized by episodic reductions in uteroplacental blood flow. METHOD Pregnant Sprague(More)
Diversity of smooth muscle within the vascular system is generated by alternative splicing of exons, yet there is limited understanding of its timing or control mechanisms. We examined splicing of myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit (Mypt1) exon 24 (E24) in relation to smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (Smmhc) and smoothelin (Smtn) alternative exons (Smmhc(More)
BACKGROUND Testosterone (T) and the androgen receptor (AR) are involved in mechanisms associated with hypertension and vessel reactivity. OBJECTIVE To investigate T and the AR on blood vessel reactivity, testicular feminized male (TFM; AR deficient males) and normal androgen receptor (NAR) male rats were used. Therefore, if the functional AR is necessary(More)