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The social network paradigm provides a set of concepts and methods useful for studying the structure of a population through which infectious agents transmitted during close personal contact spread, and an opportunity to develop improved disease control programs. The research discussed was a first attempt to use a social network approach to better(More)
This study describes the risk network structure of persons with HIV infection during its early epidemic phase in Colorado Springs, USA, using analysis of community-wide HIV/AIDS contact tracing records (sexual and injecting drug partners) from 1985 to 1999. Paired partner information from other STD/HIV programme records was used to augment network(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyze trends and patterns of HIV infection in a medium-sized community in the United States. METHODS Surveillance for AIDS and HIV infection was conducted by private physicians, military and public clinics, and blood and plasma donation centers. HIV-positive individuals were contacted and asked to refer their sex and injection partners for(More)
For more than a decade, most experts have assumed that more than 90% of HIV in African adults results from heterosexual transmission. In this exercise, we show how data from studies of risk factors for HIV can be used to estimate the proportion from sexual transmission, and we present our estimates. Calculating two ways from available data, our two point(More)
Gonococcal infection in Colorado Springs, Colorado, is concentrated in about 1% of the population. The social groups at risk are characterized as young, nonwhite, heterosexual, and connected to the military. They exhibit residential proximity by clustering in "core" census tracts; 51% of cases were in four tracts. They demonstrate residential stability and(More)
Public health authorities have long believed that the preponderance of AIDS cases in Africa are attributable to 'heterosexual transmission'; most people silently assume this rubric to indicate penile-vaginal intercourse only. Recent epidemiologic analyses suggest that the majority of HIV cases in sub-Saharan Africa may be due to non-sterile health care(More)
Disease control efforts directed at human immunodeficiency virus are predicated on the need to reduce personal risk behaviors; that approach may not adequately reflect the complicated interplay between personal behaviors and the social setting in which they occur. Efforts to date, including the application of population ecology, the development of the core(More)
In this study, the authors estimated overall and cause-specific mortality among prostitute women. They recorded information on prostitute women identified by police and health department surveillance in Colorado Springs, Colorado, from 1967 to 1999. The authors assessed cause-specific mortality in this open cohort of 1,969 women using the Social Security(More)
Theoretical consideration of the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) suggests that the key determinants of transmission dynamics are the duration of infectiousness and the extent to which subgroups in the population interact sexually. We used two empirical correlates to represent these concepts: (1) the force of infectivity, calculated by(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between social distance (measured as the geodesic, or shortest distance, between 2 people in a connected network) and geographic distance (measured as the actual distance between them in kilometers [km]). STUDY We used data from a study of 595 persons at risk for HIV and their sexual(More)