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The limitations of cancer cell lines have led to the development of direct patient-derived xenograft models. However, the interplay between the implanted human cancer cells and recruited mouse stromal and immune cells alters the tumor microenvironment and limits the value of these models. To overcome these constraints, we have developed a technique to(More)
The EGF receptor (EGFR)-directed monoclonal antibody cetuximab is the only targeted therapy approved for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) but is only effective in a minority of patients. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a drug resistance mechanism in multiple cancers, and the EGFR and(More)
OBJECTIVES We tested the hypothesis that diastolic dysfunction (DD) was an important predictor of cardiovascular (CV) death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization in a subset of patients (ejection fraction [EF] >40%) in the CHARM-Preserved study. BACKGROUND More than 40% of hospitalized patients with HF have preserved systolic function (HF-PSF), suggesting(More)
BACKGROUND Up to 50% of patients with the clinical syndrome of heart failure have preserved left ventricular systolic function (HF-PSF). These patients may have abnormalities of ventriculo-vascular coupling, due to increased vascular and ventricular stiffness. METHODS We compared arterial compliance, microvascular vasodilator function and venous(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether plasma endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor and growth factor for vascular smooth muscle, is elevated in microalbuminuric insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma endothelinlike immunoreactivity was measured by radioimmunoassay in 15 microalbuminuric diabetic patients, 12(More)
Targeted therapy development in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is challenging given the rarity of activating mutations. Additionally, HNSCC incidence is increasing related to human papillomavirus (HPV). We sought to develop an in vivo model derived from patients reflecting the evolving HNSCC epidemiologic landscape, and use it to identify new(More)
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the transcripts of many genes are trans-spliced to an SL1 spliced leader, a process that removes the RNA extending from the transcription start site to the trans-splice site, thereby making it difficult to determine the position of the promoter. Here we use RT-PCR to identify promoters of trans-spliced genes. Many genes in C.(More)
Local control and overall survival in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) remains dismal. Signaling through the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and activation of the Hh effector transcription factor Gli1 is a poor prognostic factor in this disease setting. Here, we report that(More)
Cancer research has long been hampered by the limitations of the current model systems. Both cultured cells and mouse xenografts grow in an environment highly dissimilar to that of their originating tumor, frequently resulting in promising treatments that are ultimately clinically ineffective. The development of highly immunodeficient mouse strains into(More)
The nitrogen content of a large Walker car cinoma p256exceeds the amount of nitrogen stored by its host during the period of tumor growth (14). Therefore, part of the nitrogen contained in a tu mor must have been derived from the rat's body. Some tissues should then show a decrease in nitro gen content that may be detected by comparing the nitrogen content(More)