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Clinical and animal studies have documented that hearts of the elderly are more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage compared to young adults. Recently we found that aging-dependent increase in susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis was attributable to decrease in cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) and concomitant decrease in NF-κB-mediated(More)
Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich's ataxia. In this review background is provided on the(More)
META is a new knowledge-based expert system that provides computer simulation of the biotransformation of chemicals. The program is based on the recognition of key functional groups within the complete chemical structure and therefore can predict the metabolites of new xenobiotics. Here, we describe a comprehensive knowledge base built for the purposes of(More)
S-glutathionylation is a reversible post-translational modification that continues to gain eminence as a redox regulatory mechanism of protein activity and associated cellular functions. Many diverse cellular proteins such as transcription factors, adhesion molecules, enzymes, and cytokines are reported to undergo glutathionylation, although the functional(More)
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most frequent known cause of late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). To explore the therapeutic potential of small molecules targeting the LRRK2 kinase domain, we characterized two LRRK2 kinase inhibitors, TTT-3002 and LRRK2-IN1, for their effects against LRRK2 activity in vitro and in Caenorhabditis(More)
Thioltransferase (TTase) is a member of the family of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that are involved in the maintenance of sulfhydryl homeostasis in cells by catalyzing thiol-disulfide interchange reactions. One of the major consequences of oxidative stress in brain is the formation of protein-glutathione mixed disulfides (through oxidation of protein(More)
To understand the physiological function of glutaredoxin, a thiotransferase catalyzing the reduction of mixed disulfides of protein and glutathione, we generated a line of knockout mice deficient in the cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1). To our surprise, mice deficient in Grx1 were not more susceptible to acute oxidative insults in models of heart and lung(More)
Posttranslational modifications of cysteine sulfhydryl (–SH) moieties, e.g., S-nitrosylation, S-glutathionylation, or S-sulfuration, play an important role in cellular response to oxidative stress. Reversible cysteine modifications alter protein function and can play a critical role in redox signal transduction. Perturbation of sulfhydryl homeostasis is a(More)
The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against infections. Pattern recognition receptors recognize pathogen structures and trigger intracellular signaling pathways leading to cytokine and chemokine expression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging as an important regulator of some of these pathways. ROS directly interact with(More)
S-glutathionylation) that are particularly relevant to cell signaling. Since inter-and intramolecular disulfides and glutathionyl mixed disulfides are known to be reductively reversed by the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin enzyme systems , respectively (Gallogly et al. 2009), it is conceivable that these enzymes may regulate RET function. Thus, reversible(More)