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1 Workshop at which this work was first presented (Utrecht, June 22-24, 1994). For comments on this material, we are grateful to them and the other workshop participants, especially Austin have provided valuable feedback; and the comments, questions, and suggestions from the participants in the (eventually joint) UMass and Rutgers Correspondence Theory… (More)
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This manual is the \living document" of the Interlingua Working Group of the DARPA Knowledge Sharing EEort. As such, it represents work in progress toward a proposal for a standard knowledge interchange format. 1 Abstract: Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) is a computer-oriented language for the interchange of knowledge among disparate programs. It has… (More)
These notes discuss formalizing contexts as first class objects. The basic relation is ist(c, p). It asserts that the proposition p is true in the context c. The most important formulas relate the propositions true in different contexts. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit ax-iomatizations in limited contexts to be expanded to transcend the… (More)
Humans and intelligent computer programs must often jump to the conclusion that the objects they can determine to have certain properties or relations are the only objects that do. Circumscription formalizes such conjectural reasoning.
1. Introduction A programming system called LISP (for lASt Processor) has been developed for the IBM 704 computer by the Artificial Intelligence group at M.I.T. The system was designed to facilitate experiments with a proposed system called the Advice Taker, whereby a machine could be instructed to handle declarative as well as imperative sentences and… (More)
1 The problem All languages have distributional regularities: patterns which restrict what sounds can appear where, including nowhere, as determined by local syntagmatic factors independent of any particular morphemic alternations. Early generative phonology tended to slight the study of distributional relations in favor of morphophonemics, perhaps because… (More)
We present a new and more symmetric version of the circumscrip-tion method of nonmonotonic reasoning rst described in (McCarthy 1980) and some applications to formalizing common sense knowledge. The applications in this paper are mostly based on minimizing the abnormality of diierent aspects of various entities. Included are non-monotonic treatments of is-a… (More)