John J . Lemasters

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Mitochondria are the essential site of aerobic energy production in eukaryotic cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an inevitable by-product of mitochondrial metabolism and can cause mitochondrial DNA mutations and dysfunction. Mitochondrial damage can also be the consequence of disease processes. Therefore, maintaining a healthy population of(More)
The objective of the present investigation was to examine the functional reestablishment of polarity in freshly isolated hepatocytes cultured between 2 layers of gelled collagen (sandwich configuration). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that the canalicular multispecific organic anion transport protein (multidrug resistance-associated protein, Mrp2) was(More)
Using confocal microscopy, onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in individual mitochondria within living cells can be visualized by the redistribution of the cytosolic fluorophore, calcein, into mitochondria. Simultaneously, mitochondria release membrane potential-indicating fluorophores like tetramethylrhodamine methylester. The MPT(More)
Death of hepatocytes and other hepatic cell types is a characteristic feature of liver diseases as diverse as cholestasis, viral hepatitis, ischemia/reperfusion, liver preservation for transplantation and drug/toxicant-induced injury. Cell death typically follows one of two patterns: oncotic necrosis and apoptosis. Necrosis is typically the consequence of(More)
This review addresses recent advances in specific mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Because of its unique metabolism and relationship to the gastrointestinal tract, the liver is an important target of the toxicity of drugs, xenobiotics, and oxidative stress. In cholestatic disease, endogenously generated bile acids produce hepatocellular apoptosis by(More)
Despite a detailed understanding of their metabolism, mitochondria often behave anomalously. In particular, global suppression of mitochondrial metabolism and metabolite exchange occurs in apoptosis, ischemia and anoxia, cytopathic hypoxia of sepsis and multiple organ failure, alcoholic liver disease, aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells (Warburg effect) and(More)
Cells exposed to extreme physicochemical or mechanical stimuli die in an uncontrollable manner, as a result of their immediate structural breakdown. Such an unavoidable variant of cellular demise is generally referred to as 'accidental cell death' (ACD). In most settings, however, cell death is initiated by a genetically encoded apparatus, correlating with(More)
The spectral and metabolic properties of Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent cationic dye used to label mitochondria in living cells, were investigated in suspensions of isolated rat-liver mitochondria. A red shift of Rhodamine 123 absorbance and fluorescence occurred following mitochondrial energization. Fluorescence quenching of as much as 75% also occurred. The(More)
Cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), but not always. To characterize the CsA-sensitive and -insensitive MPT, rat liver mitochondria were exposed to low and high doses of various MPT inducers. Mitochondrial swelling, cyclophilin D membrane binding and permeability transition (PT) pore diameter were measured. The(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a pro-oxidant and fibrogenic cytokine. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in Ang II-induced effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a fibrogenic cell type. Human HSCs express mRNAs of key components of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase. Ang II phosphorylated p47phox, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase, and induced reactive(More)