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Death of hepatocytes and other hepatic cell types is a characteristic feature of liver diseases as diverse as cholestasis, viral hepatitis, ischemia/reperfusion, liver preservation for transplantation and drug/toxicant-induced injury. Cell death typically follows one of two patterns: oncotic necrosis and apoptosis. Necrosis is typically the consequence of(More)
Cell surface 'blebbing' is an early consequence of hypoxic and toxic injury to cells. A rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ has been suggested as the stimulus for bleb formation and the final common pathway to irreversible cell injury. Here, using digitized low-light video microscopy, we examine blebbing, cytosolic free Ca2+, mitochondrial membrane potential and(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS An increase of ethanol metabolism and hepatic mitochondrial respiration occurs in vivo after a single binge of alcohol. Here, our aim was to determine how ethanol intake affects hepatic mitochondrial polarization status in vivo in relation to ethanol metabolism and steatosis. METHODS Hepatic mitochondrial polarization, permeability(More)
Cells degrade excess and effete organelles by the process of autophagy. Autophagic stimulation of rat hepatocytes by serum deprivation and glucagon (1 M) caused a fivefold increase of spontaneously depolarizing mitochondria to about 1.5% of total mitochondria after 90 min. Cyclosporin A (CsA, 5 M), an immunosuppressant that blocks the mitochondrial(More)
Cells exposed to extreme physicochemical or mechanical stimuli die in an uncontrollable manner, as a result of their immediate structural breakdown. Such an unavoidable variant of cellular demise is generally referred to as 'accidental cell death' (ACD). In most settings, however, cell death is initiated by a genetically encoded apparatus, correlating with(More)
This study assesses the controversial role of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in apoptosis. In primary rat hepatocytes expressing an IkappaB superrepressor, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) induced apoptosis as shown by nuclear morphology, DNA ladder formation, and caspase 3 activation. Confocal microscopy showed that TNFalpha induced(More)
The increase in cellular and mitochondrial glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and the GSSG:GSH ratio after acetaminophen (AAP) overdose suggest the involvement of an oxidant stress in the pathophysiology. However, the initial severe depletion of hepatocellular glutathione makes quantitative assessment of the oxidant stress difficult. Therefore, we tested(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate causes a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ leading to collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential and eventually cell death in cortical neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism responsible for mitochondrial depolarization using laser scanning confocal microscopy of single cultured rate cortical neurons. To(More)
Mitophagy (mitochondrial autophagy), which removes damaged, effete and superfluous mitochondria, has several distinct variants. In Type 1 mitophagy occurring during nutrient deprivation, preautophagic structures (PAS) grow into cup-shaped phagophores that surround and sequester individual mitochondria into mitophagosomes, a process requiring(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation are well-recognized features of acetaminophen (AAP)-induced hepatocyte cell death. However, the endonucleases responsible for this effect have not been identified. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G are nucleases located in the intermembrane space of mitochondria. AIF is(More)