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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors are one of the most deadly forms of human cancer and despite improved treatments, median survival time for the majority of patients is a dismal 12-15 months. A hallmark of these aggressive tumors is their unique ability to diffusively infiltrate normal brain tissue. To understand this behavior and successfully target the(More)
Hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced polymers have been proposed as a method of improving the biological properties of bone cements and implant materials. For example, bone cements based on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have long been used to secure orthopedic implants to the skeleton. This composite could also be used as a polished coating on other materials or(More)
As the potential range of stem cell applications in tissue engineering continues to grow, the appropriate scaffolding choice is necessary to create tightly defined artificial microenvironments for each target organ. These microenvironments determine stem cell fate via control over differentiation. In this study we examined the specific effects of scaffold(More)
Damage to the femoral head in total hip arthroplasty often takes the form of discrete scratches, which can lead to dramatic wear acceleration of the polyethylene (PE) liner. Here, a novel formulation is reported for finite element (FE) analysis of wear acceleration due to scratch damage. A diffused-light photography technique was used to globally locate(More)
Bone cells and their precursors are sensitive to changes in their biomechanical environment. The importance of mechanical stimuli has been observed in bone homeostasis and osteogenesis, but the mechanisms responsible for osteogenic induction in response to mechanical signals are poorly understood. We hypothesized that compressive forces could exert an(More)
A mechanistic understanding of adipose tissue differentiation is critical for the treatment and prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Conventional in vitro models of adipogenesis are preadipocytes or freshly isolated adipocytes grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Optimal results using in vitro tissue culture models can be expected only when(More)
Small pore sizes inherent to electrospun matrices can hinder efficient cellular ingrowth. To facilitate infiltration while retaining its extracellular matrix-like character, electrospinning was combined with salt leaching to produce a scaffold having deliberate, engineered delaminations. We made elegant use of a specific randomizing component of the(More)
A hallmark of malignant gliomas is their ability to disperse through neural tissue, leading to long-term failure of all known therapies. Identifying new antimigratory targets could reduce glioma recurrence and improve therapeutic efficacy, but screens based on conventional migration assays are hampered by the limited ability of these assays to reproduce(More)
Guided assembly of microscale tissue subunits (i.e. 3D cell clusters/aggregates) has found applications in cell therapy/tissue engineering, cell and developmental biology, and drug discovery. As cluster size and geometry are known to influence cellular responses, the ability to spatially control cluster formation in a high throughput manner could be(More)
Aligned fibers have been shown to facilitate cell migration in the direction of fiber alignment while oxygen (O2 )-carrying solutions improve the metabolism of cells in hypoxic culture. Therefore, U251 aggregate migration on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-aligned fibers was studied in cell culture media supplemented with the O2 storage and transport protein(More)