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A critical barrier to entry into structure-based virtual screening is the lack of a suitable, easy to access database of purchasable compounds. We have therefore prepared a library of 727,842 molecules, each with 3D structure, using catalogs of compounds from vendors (the size of this library continues to grow). The molecules have been assigned biologically(More)
The identification of protein function based on biological information is an area of intense research. Here we consider a complementary technique that quantitatively groups and relates proteins based on the chemical similarity of their ligands. We began with 65,000 ligands annotated into sets for hundreds of drug targets. The similarity score between each(More)
ZINC is a free public resource for ligand discovery. The database contains over twenty million commercially available molecules in biologically relevant representations that may be downloaded in popular ready-to-dock formats and subsets. The Web site also enables searches by structure, biological activity, physical property, vendor, catalog number, name,(More)
Although drugs are intended to be selective, at least some bind to several physiological targets, explaining side effects and efficacy. Because many drug-target combinations exist, it would be useful to explore possible interactions computationally. Here we compared 3,665 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and investigational drugs against(More)
Clozapine, by virtue of its absence of extrapyramidal side effects and greater efficacy, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia, although the mechanisms underlying this exceptional activity remain controversial. Combining an unbiased cheminformatics and physical screening approach, we evaluated clozapine's activity at >2350 distinct molecular(More)
Molecular docking is the most practical approach to leverage protein structure for ligand discovery, but the technique retains important liabilities that make it challenging to deploy on a large scale. We have therefore created an expert system, DOCK Blaster, to investigate the feasibility of full automation. The method requires a PDB code, sometimes with a(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are intensely studied as drug targets and for their role in signaling. With the determination of the first crystal structures, interest in structure-based ligand discovery increased. Unfortunately, for most GPCRs no experimental structures are available. The determination of the D(3) receptor structure and the challenge(More)
Ligand enrichment among top-ranking hits is a key metric of virtual screening. To avoid bias, decoys should resemble ligands physically, so that enrichment is not attributable to simple differences of gross features. We therefore created a directory of useful decoys (DUD) by selecting decoys that resembled annotated ligands physically but not topologically(More)
The recent determination of X-ray structures of pharmacologically relevant GPCRs has made these targets accessible to structure-based ligand discovery. Here we explore whether novel chemotypes may be discovered for the A(2A) adenosine receptor, based on complementarity to its recently determined structure. The A(2A) adenosine receptor signals in the(More)
The similarity of drug targets is typically measured using sequence or structural information. Here, we consider chemo-centric approaches that measure target similarity on the basis of their ligands, asking how chemoinformatics similarities differ from those derived bioinformatically, how stable the ligand networks are to changes in chemoinformatics(More)