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PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection on chemokine gene expression and secretion by human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cell cultures. METHODS HRPE cells were infected with HCMV (strain AD169) at an MOI of 5. Culture supernatants, collected at various postinoculation days, were used for the analyses of chemokines by(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial components of innate immunity that participate in host defense against microbial pathogens. We evaluated the expression and function of TLRs in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Real time PCR analysis revealed gene expression for TLRs 1-7, 9, and 10 in RPE cells. TLRs 1 and 3 were the most highly expressed(More)
In the vertebrate retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) performs specific functions critical to the normal process of vision. Although some of these functions are well documented, molecular data are still scarce. Using the RPE-specific monoclonal antibody RPE9, raised against human RPE cells, we have identified a novel 65 kD protein, conserved in(More)
We have used human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cultures to investigate the primary cellular responses of retinal resident cells to intracellular Toxoplasma gondii replication. At 4 days postinoculation, when all of the cells were infected, the secretion of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF),(More)
The exact pathogenic mechanisms involved in autoimmune and inflammatory eye diseases are not known. However, studies during the past few years indicate that a T cell infiltrate, T cell sensitization to retinal antigens and expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens are associated with this process. In this report we show that the(More)
PURPOSE Cyclooxygenases (COX) orchestrate a variety of homeostatic processes and participate in various pathophysiological conditions. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell performs a variety of regulatory functions within the retina. The conditions under which COX-1 and COX-2 are expressed and upregulated in human RPE (HRPE) cells were determined. (More)
PURPOSE The inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. The microRNAs miR-146a and miR-146b-5p can regulate the inflammatory process by attenuating cytokine signaling via the nuclear factor-κB pathway. The aim of the present study is to investigate the expression of(More)
PURPOSE Studies have shown that interferon (IFN)-gamma stimulates expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, interleukin (IL)-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase and inhibits replication of Toxoplasma gondii in human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cells. The present study was undertaken(More)
PURPOSE Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are frequent complications in patients who have undergone kidney and bone marrow transplant and in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The mechanism by which CMV is activated and replicated within the retina is unknown. The authors evaluated the ability of human CMV to initiate replication in human(More)
Human leukocytes maintained in culture are induced to release histamine when exposed to ragweed antigen E or anti-IgE. Leukocyte cultures incubated with virus (i.e. HSV-1, Influenza A, and Adeno-1) but not exposed to ragweed antigen E or anti-IgE fail to release histamine. If, however, leukocyte cultures are first exposed to virus and then to ragweed(More)