John J. Gibson

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The perception of motion in the visual field, when recognized as a psychological problem instead of something self-evident, is often taken to present the same kind of problem as the perception of color or of form. Movement is thought to be simply one of the characteristics of an object, and the only question is "how do we see it?" Actually, the problem cuts(More)
Motion parallax is the optical change of the visual field of an observer which results from a change of his viewing position. It is often denned as the set of "apparent motions" of stationary objects which arise during locomotion. Psychologists assert that it is a "cue" for perceiving the depth of the objects, but the optical fact of motion parallax must be(More)
The problem of how we perceive the shape of an object in space is complicated by the optical fact that to a particular retinal form there does not correspond a unique physical form but a whole set of possible physical forms. A given sheaf of light rays whose cross section is a particular form may be reflected from any surface whose margins coincide with the(More)
WHAT I am going to talk about is the relation of sensing to perceiving. We have all believed that we understood the process of sensation fairly well and that only the process of perception gave us difficulties. But I am going to suggest on the contrary that a straightforward theory of perception is possible and that it is our understanding of sensation(More)
An exploratory survey of the varieties of optical motion which could serve as stimuli for the perception of motions in the world (6, 7) suggested the hypothesis that one kind of geometrical motion in a plane yields an impression of a rigid motion in space but that any other kind of geometrical motion in a plane does not. The stimulus pattern was always a(More)