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Tuberculosis (TB), caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Efforts to control it are hampered by difficulties with diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Most people infected with M. tuberculosis remain asymptomatic, termed latent TB, with a 10% lifetime risk of developing active TB disease.(More)
BACKGROUND Tofacitinib (CP-690,550) is a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is being investigated as a targeted immunomodulator and disease-modifying therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS In this phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 6-month study, 611 patients were randomly assigned, in a 4:4:1:1 ratio, to 5 mg of tofacitinib(More)
BACKGROUND Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are used to treat osteoarthritis. The multicenter, double-blind, placebo- and celecoxib-controlled Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) evaluated their efficacy and safety as a treatment for knee pain from osteoarthritis. METHODS We randomly assigned 1583 patients with symptomatic knee(More)
BACKGROUND Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs may confer greater benefits when combined with the antimetabolite methotrexate. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of leflunomide versus placebo when added to ongoing, stable-dose methotrexate therapy in patients with persistently active rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN 24-week, multicenter,(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of 100 mg daily anakinra (Kineret), a recombinant form of the naturally occurring interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, plus methotrexate (MTX) in reducing the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS Patients with active RA (n = 506) despite current treatment with MTX were enrolled in this(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether sulfasalazine (SSZ) at a dosage of 2,000 mg/day is effective for the treatment of active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) resistant to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug therapy. METHODS Two hundred twenty-one patients with PsA were recruited from 15 clinics, randomized (double-blind) to SSZ or placebo treatment, and followed up(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the safety and efficacy of etanercept in a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of adults with moderate to severe active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS Patients (n = 277) were treated with either etanercept 25 mg (n = 138) or placebo (n = 139) subcutaneously twice weekly for 24 weeks. The primary(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anakinra in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS Patients with moderate-to-severe active RA who were receiving MTX for 6 consecutive months, with stable doses for > or = 3 months (those with disease duration of >6 months but <12 years) were(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the safety and tolerability of tocilizumab (TCZ) as monotherapy or in combination with nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had an inadequate response at study entry to their current treatment with biologic agents or DMARDs. METHODS This 24-week,(More)
Studies on the role of the RNA receptor TLR8 in inflammation have been limited by its different function in human versus rodents. We have generated multiple lines of transgenic mice expressing different levels of human TLR8. The high copy number chimeras were unable to pass germline; developed severe inflammation targeting the pancreas, salivary glands, and(More)