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Acute inflammatory lung injury is often a delayed complication of critical illness and is associated with increased mortality. High mobility group-1 (HMG-1) protein, in addition to its role as a transcriptional regulatory factor, has recently been identified as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality. In the present studies, HMG-1 given intratracheally(More)
Progress in oncology drug development has been hampered by a lack of preclinical models that reliably predict clinical activity of novel compounds in cancer patients. In an effort to address these shortcomings, there has been a recent increase in the use of patient-derived tumour xenografts (PDTX) engrafted into immune-compromised rodents such as athymic(More)
RATIONALE The IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK-1) plays a central role in TLR2- and TLR4-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, a critical event in the transcriptional regulation of many sepsis-associated proinflammatory mediators. There are two haplotypes for the IRAK-1 gene in Caucasians, with the variant haplotype consisting of five(More)
Acute lung injury is characterized by accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs, accompanied by the development of interstitial edema and an intense inflammatory response. To assess the role of neutrophils as early immune effectors in hemorrhage- or endotoxemia-induced lung injury, mice were made neutropenic with cyclophosphamide or anti-neutrophil(More)
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, a DNA binding protein that stabilizes nucleosomes and facilitates transcription, was recently identified as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality. High serum HMGB1 levels in patients with sepsis are associated with increased mortality, and administration of HMGB1 produces acute inflammation in animal models of(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), initially identified as an LPS receptor, is critical to the signaling of a variety of danger signals, including heat shock protein 60, fibrinogen, and fibronectin. Recent data also suggest that TLR-4 plays a role in determining survival in both endotoxemia and hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that a functional TLR-4 would be(More)
PURPOSE Dysregulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Src signaling pathways commonly occur in colorectal cancer. Mutations in the PIK3CA gene are associated with an increase in severity of disease and worse clinical outcomes. Elevated levels of Src have been identified in premalignant lesions and are suggested to play a central role in tumor(More)
Acute lung injury is frequently associated with sepsis or blood loss and is characterized by a proinflammatory response and infiltration of activated neutrophils into the lungs. Hemorrhage or endotoxemia result in activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and NF-kappa B in lung neutrophils as well as increased expression of proinflammatory(More)
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine protease that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. Although increased circulating levels of uPA are present in endotoxemia and sepsis, conditions in which activated neutrophils contribute to the development of acute organ dysfunction, the ability of uPA to participate directly in LPS-induced(More)
Acute lung injury is frequently associated with endotoxemia and is characterized by the accumulation in the lungs of large numbers of neutrophils activated to produce proinflammatory mediators. In the setting of acute lung injury, the percentage of apoptotic cells among lung neutrophils is decreased. The transcriptional regulatory factor NF-kappaB is(More)