John Hunter Alexander

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BACKGROUND Patients with atrial fibrillation who are vitamin K antagonist (VKA)-naive may have a higher risk of thrombosis and/or bleeding than VKA-experienced patients. METHODS AND RESULTS Using data from ARISTOTLE, we assessed baseline characteristics and the treatment effect of apixaban versus warfarin in the VKA-naive and VKA-experienced cohorts. We(More)
CONTEXT Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with autologous vein grafting is commonly performed. Progressive neointimal hyperplasia, however, contributes to considerable vein graft failure. Edifoligide is an oligonucleotide decoy that binds to and inhibits E2F transcription factors and thus may prevent neointimal hyperplasia and vein graft failure.(More)
BACKGROUND Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, with placebo, in addition to standard(More)
AIMS Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common among patients with impaired renal function. Apixaban, a novel oral anticoagulant with partial renal excretion, was compared with warfarin and reduced the rate stroke, death and bleeding in the ARISTOTLE trial. We evaluated these outcomes in relation to renal function. METHODS AND RESULTS Baseline glomerular(More)
A growing body of empirical literature challenges philosophers’ reliance on intuitions as evidence based on the fact that intuitions vary according to factors such as cultural and educational background, and socio-economic status. Our research extends this challenge, investigating Lehrer’s appeal to the Truetemp Case as evidence against reliabilism. We(More)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk of stroke that can be attenuated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Vitamin K antagonist use is limited, in part, by the high incidence of complications when patients' international normalized ratios (INRs) deviate from the target range. The primary objective of ARISTOTLE is to determine if the(More)
BACKGROUND After an acute coronary syndrome, patients remain at risk of recurrent events. Apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, is a novel anticoagulant that may reduce these events but also poses a risk of bleeding. METHODS AND RESULTS Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic and Safety Events (APPRAISE) was a phase 2, double-blind,(More)
BACKGROUND In the ARISTOTLE trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was reduced by apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) have a high risk of stroke. We therefore aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in(More)
An ability to readily determine an anticoagulant effect with an emerging class of direct, active site, oral factor Xa inhibitors is viewed by the medical community as attractive and by some as an absolute requirement for their use in clinical practice. We performed a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic substudy in APPRAISE-1—a study of apixaban in patients(More)
CONTEXT Cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains a common and lethal disorder despite aggressive use of early revascularization. Systemic inflammation, including expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and generation of excess nitric oxide, is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis and inappropriate(More)