John Hugh Martin

Learn More
We used autoradiography to examine the extent of reversible inactivation produced by microinjection of lidocaine (40 micrograms/microliters saline) and muscimol (1 microgram/microliter saline). We measured intracortical spread of tracer amounts of labelled drug and local changes in uptake of [1-14C]glucose produced by the microinjection. The maximal average(More)
In this review, we describe how pharmacological inactivation can be used to elucidate the central control of skilled limb movement. Local anesthetics and tetrodotoxin block neuronal cell bodies and passing fibers while gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and muscimol only block cell bodies. Blockade induction time is short (several minutes) for all the agents.(More)
 Corticospinal (CS) axon terminations in several species are widespread early in development but are subsequently refined into a spatially more restricted distribution. We studied the role of neural activity in sensorimotor cortex in shaping postnatal development of CS terminations in cats. We continuously infused muscimol unilaterally into sensorimotor(More)
Several explanations for the 200 to 280 ppm glacial/interglacial change in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations deal with variations in southern ocean phytoplankton productivity and the related use or nonuse of major plant nutrients. An hypothesis is presented herein in which arguments are made that new productivity in today's southern ocean (7.4 X 1013 g yr -1)(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine when the muscles and joints of the forelimb become represented in primary motor cortex (M1) during postnatal life and how local representation patterns change. We examined these questions in cats that were anesthetized (45-90 days, n = 14; adults, n = 3) and awake (n = 4; 52-86 days). We used intracortical(More)
The corticospinal system is the principal motor system for controlling movements that require the greatest skill and flexibility. It is the last motor system to develop. The pattern of termination of corticospinal axons, as they grow into the spinal gray matter, bears little resemblance to the pattern later in development and in maturity. Refinement of(More)
Although we understand that activity- and use-dependent processes are important in determining corticospinal axon terminal development in the spinal cord, little is known about the role of these processes in development of skilled control of limb movements. In the present study we determined the effects of unilateral motor cortex activity blockade produced(More)
The assembly of neuronal networks during development requires tightly controlled cell-cell interactions. Multiple cell surface receptors that control axon guidance and synapse maturation have been identified. However, the signaling mechanisms downstream of these receptors have remained unclear. Receptor signals might be transmitted through dedicated(More)
Activity-dependent competition shapes corticospinal (CS) axon outgrowth in the spinal cord during development. An important question in neural repair is whether activity can be used to promote outgrowth of CS axons in maturity. After injury, spared CS axons sprout and make new connections, but often not enough to restore function. We propose that(More)