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I compare the fees, expenses, and trading costs society pays to invest in the U.S. stock market with an estimate of what would be paid if everyone invested passively. Averaging over 1980–2006, I find investors spend 0.67% of the aggregate value of the market each year searching for superior returns. Society’s capitalized cost of price discovery is at least(More)
Five oligonucleotide sequences are described that were used as primers in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify specific sequences from Listeria DNA. When all five primers were used in combination, three PCR products were possible; a Listeria specific product that occurs with DNA from any Listeria sp., a Listeria monocytogenes specific product that(More)
From 1986 to 1990, we conducted our second longitudinal study in the central (upstate) New York (CNY) area on the wild avian hosts of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus. Field-collecting methods mirrored a study conducted from 1978 to 1980 at the same endemic focus. Over the 5-yr study period, we captured 6,296 birds representing 99 species and(More)
Although fatal work-related assault assault injury rates are routinely reported in the United States, reports of non-fatal injuries are not routinely examined. Non-fatal workplace assault injuries can be reported through many agencies. One of the most common reporting mechanisms in California is the Employer's Report of Occupational Illness and Injury.(More)
A regional surveillance system for eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus was established in central New York in 1984 after the 2nd human EEE fatality occurred in 1983. Extensive mosquito surveillance activities were coordinated with the rapid laboratory processing of mosquito specimens for EEE virus. Active surveillance for EEE infections in humans and(More)
Seven pure-culture strains of fungi cultivated by attine ants (ant-garden fungi) were isolated from locally maintained leaf-cutting ant colonies. An ant-garden fungus strain obtained from an Atta cephalotes colony, when offered to ants of the colony from which the fungus was isolated, was accepted as their own. Young fungus cultures were harvested and(More)
Program slicing is an effective techniqe for narrowing the focus of attention to the relevant parts of a program during the debugging process. However, imprecision is a problem in static slices, since they are based on all possible executions that reach a given program point rather than the specific execution under which the program is being debugged. (More)
Many arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important human pathogens medically. The development of an effective technique to detect the viruses by using nucleic acid amplification, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), improves not only clinical diagnosis but also virologic surveillance of mosquito vectors in the field. In this study, the development(More)
Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald) collected in gravid traps were held individually in modified BioQuip breeders in a darkened room under ambient conditions and readily oviposited on Styrofoam blocks. Counts were made of eggs laid on Styrofoam blocks, container sides, and water surface, and dissections allowed for counts of retained eggs to determine the(More)
In 1992, Altosid (methoprene) pellets, Abate (temephos) 5 CG, and Bactimos (Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis) granules were applied aerially to small field plots within a Culiseta breeding swamp. Aspects measured included the deposition and diffusion of larvicides into larval crypts and effects on larval Culiseta melanura and nontarget aquatic(More)