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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I. Force transducers designed for chronic implantation were placed on the individual tendons of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles in the same hind-limb of adult cats. Electromyographic (EMG) and kinesiological data were also recorded. Force, EMG, and movement data obtained from intact, freely moving cats(More)
Locomotor performance, hindlimb muscle activity and gait patterns during stepping were studied in step-trained and non-trained female, adult spinal cats. Changes in locomotor characteristics relative to prespinalization bipedal and quadrupedal stepping patterns were used to evaluate the effects of step training on the capacity to execute full weight-bearing(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to determine the physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) of the major muscles or muscle groups of the lower leg. For 12 healthy subjects, the boundaries of each muscle or muscle group were digitized from images taken at 1-cm intervals along the length of the leg. Muscle volumes were calculated from the(More)
The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between internal force production in selected skeletal muscles and the externally calculated joint moment during overground locomotion in the adult cat. Hindlimb segments were modelled as a linked system of rigid bodies and a generalized muscle moment (GMM), the sum over all active and passive(More)
Behavioral and physiological characteristics of standing were studied in nontrained spinal cats and in spinal cats that received daily stand training of the hindlimbs for 12 wk. Training consisted of assisting the cats to stand with full weight support either on both hindlimbs or on one hindlimb (30 min/day, 5 days/wk). Extensor muscle electromyographic(More)
Most models of in vivo musculoskeletal function fail to take into account the diversity of force trajectories defined by muscle fiber architecture. It has been shown for many muscles, across species, that muscle fibers commonly end within muscle fascicles without reaching a myotendinous junction, and that many of these fibers show a progressive decline in(More)
Faeces containing Trichostrongylus colubriformis and/or Ostertagia circumcincta eggs were used to provide four contaminations in each of 2 years on plots of browntop, Yorkshire fog, ryegrass, tall fescue, lucerne, chicory, cocksfoot, white clover, and prairie grass and in the second year a mixed sward of ryegrass/white clover. Third stage larvae were(More)
This article investigates how the internal structure of muscle and its relationship with tendon and even skeletal structures influence the translation of muscle fiber contractions into movement of a limb. Reconstructions of the anatomy of the human soleus muscle from the Visible Human Dataset (available from the National Library of Medicine), magnetic(More)
Six adult monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received a unilateral lesion of the lateral corticospinal tract (CST) in the thoracic spinal cord. Prior to surgery, the animals were trained to perform quadrupedal stepping on a treadmill, and item retrieval with the foot. Whole body kinematics and electromyogram (EMG) recordings were made prior to, and at regular(More)