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Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cell lines established directly from the early embryo which can contribute differentiated progeny to all adult tissues, including the germ-cell lineage, after re-incorporation into the normal embryo. They provide both a cellular vector for the generation of transgenic animals and a useful system for the(More)
Adenosine is released from metabolically active cells by facilitated diffusion, and is generated extracellularly by degradation of released ATP. It is a potent biological mediator that modulates the activity of numerous cell types, including various neuronal populations, platelets, neutrophils and mast cells, and smooth muscle cells in bronchi and(More)
In early embryonic development the basic body plan arises because cells in different regions become programmed to follow different developmental pathways. We have proposed that in the early amphibian embryo this process of regional specification arises from the action of three different inducing factors, or morphogens, but we have not until now had any idea(More)
Probabilistic model checking is a formal verification technique that has been successfully applied to the analysis of systems from a broad range of domains, including security and communication protocols, distributed algorithms and power management. In this paper we illustrate its applicability to a complex biological system: the FGF (Fibroblast Growth(More)
2ar has been identified as a gene inducible by tumor promoters and growth factors in a variety of cultured mouse cell lines (Smith, J. H., and D. T. Denhardt. 1987. J. Cell. Biochem. 34:13-22). Sequence analysis shows that it codes for mouse osteopontin, an RGDS-containing, phosphorylated, sialic acid-rich Ca++-binding protein originally isolated from bone(More)
PDGF-A(-/-) mice lack lung alveolar smooth muscle cells (SMC), exhibit reduced deposition of elastin fibres in the lung parenchyma, and develop lung emphysema due to complete failure of alveogenesis. We have mapped the expression of PDGF-A, PDGF receptor-alpha, tropoelastin, smooth muscle alpha-actin and desmin in developing lungs from wild type and(More)
There is a class of oligodendrocyte progenitors, called O-2A progenitors, that is characterized by expression of platelet-derived growth factor &agr;-receptors (PDGFR(&agr;)). It is not known whether all oligodendrocytes are derived from these PDGFRalpha-progenitors or whether a subset(s) of oligodendrocytes develops from a different, PDGFR alpha-negative(More)
Development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract depends on reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal cell signaling. Here, we demonstrate a role for platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) and its receptor, PDGFR-(alpha), in this process. Mice lacking PDGF-A or PDGFR-(alpha) were found to develop an abnormal GI mucosal lining, including fewer and misshapen villi(More)
Conditioning injury to adult mammalian sensory neurons enhances their regeneration potential. Here we show that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a fundamental component of the conditioning response. Conditioning injury in vivo significantly increases the intrinsic growth capacity of sensory neurons in vitro from LIF+/+ mice. This conditioning effect is(More)
Exposure of quiescent MRC-5 human fibroblasts to growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor or embryonal carcinoma-derived growth factor resulted in the induction of mRNA transcripts encoding the metalloproteinases collagenase and stromelysin and the specific metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP, whilst expression of collagen(More)