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John Hawthorne's recent monograph Knowledge and Lotteries 1 is centred on the following puzzle: Suppose you claim to know that you will not be able to afford to summer in the Hamptons next year. Aware of your modest means, we believe you. But suppose you also claim to know that a ticket you recently purchased in a multi-million dollar lottery is a loser.… (More)
A very simple contextualist treatment of a sentence containing an epistemic modal, e.g. a might be F, is that it is true iff for all the contextually salient community knows, a is F. It is widely agreed that the simple theory will not work in some cases, but the counterexamples produced so far seem amenable to a more complicated contextualist theory. We… (More)
Contextualism treats 'knows' as an indexical that denotes different epistemic properties in different contexts. Contrastivism treats 'knows' as denoting a ternary relation with a slot for a contrast proposition. I will argue that contrastivism resolves the main philosophical problems of contextualism, by employing a better linguistic model. Contextualist… (More)
Seth Yalcin has pointed out some puzzling facts about the behaviour of epistemic modals in certain embedded contexts. For example, conditionals that begin 'If it is raining and it might not be raining, …' sound unacceptable, unlike conditionals that begin 'If it is raining and I don't know it, …'. These facts pose a prima facie problem for an orthodox… (More)
This paper examines the mind and language of an omniscient being from a supervaluationist perspective. Two questions hall receive special attention. How ought the supervaluationist explicate the concept of omniscience? And what ought the supervaluationist expect an omniscient speaker to say about a Sorites series? How ought we to conceive of an omniscient… (More)
Samples of brain anterior temporal cortex from 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 18 age-matched controls have been analysed for myo-inositol and the three phosphoinositides. There was significantly less phosphatidylinositol in the Alzheimer samples (1.36 mumol/g wet weight) than in the controls (2.28 mumol/g). The concentrations of… (More)
The secretion of catecholamines and the labelling of phospholipids with 32Pi has been studied in slices of bovine adrenal medulla. Both nicotinic and muscarinic drugs provoked catecholamine secretion, but only muscarinic activation was accompanied by the increased labelling of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid.