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Water availability limits plant growth and production in almost all terrestrial ecosystems. However, biomes differ substantially in sensitivity of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) to between-year variation in precipitation. Average rain-use efficiency (RUE; ANPP/precipitation) also varies between biomes, supposedly because of differences in(More)
In experimentally heated plots that each span a soil moisture gradient in a Rocky Mountain meadow, aboveground biomass of Artemisia tridentata (a sagebrush) increased in the drier habitat and that of Pentaphylloides floribunda (a shrub cinquefoil) increased in the wetter habitat relative to control plots. In contrast, aboveground forb biomass decreased in(More)
The biodiversity scaling metrics widely studied in macroecology include the species-area relationship (SAR), the scale-dependent species-abundance distribution (SAD), the distribution of masses or metabolic energies of individuals within and across species, the abundance-energy or abundance-mass relationship across species, and the species-level occupancy(More)
Localized ecological systems are known to shift abruptly and irreversibly from one state to another when they are forced across critical thresholds. Here we review evidence that the global ecosystem as a whole can react in the same way and is approaching a planetary-scale critical transition as a result of human influence. The plausibility of a(More)
We studied the effects of a seven-year warming experiment on 11 forb species in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado in 1996 and 1997. Previous work on this experiment focused on ecosystem and community responses to warming. Our purpose here is to report on species responses. We found significant positive responses to warming for two species and negative(More)
Julia A. Klein,* John Harte and Xin-Quan Zhao Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, Division of Ecosystem Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai, China *Correspondence and Present address: Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, B226 NESB,(More)
Understanding the sensitivity of tundra vegetation to climate warming is critical to forecasting future biodiversity and vegetation feedbacks to climate. In situ warming experiments accelerate climate change on a small scale to forecast responses of local plant communities. Limitations of this approach include the apparent site-specificity of results and(More)
By examining the consequences of simultaneous mutualism and competition between plants and decomposers, we show that testable predictions about nutrient allocation in ecosystems follow from the assumption that decomposers allocate for their own growth the fraction of mineralized nutrient that maximizes their population biomass, leaving the remainder(More)
Classic theory predicts species richness scales as the quarter-power of area, yet species-area relationships (SAR) vary widely depending on habitat, taxa, and scale range. Because power-law SAR are used to predict species loss under habitat loss, and to scale species richness from plots to biomes, insight into the wide variety of observed SAR and the(More)