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Migration is expected to affect craniometric variation in three ways: 1) movement into a different environment leading to developmental plasticity; 2) movement into a different environment followed by in situ adaptation through natural selection; and 3) changes in among-group differentiation and genetic distance through the action of gene flow. The relative(More)
Recent controversies surrounding models of modern human origins have focused on among-group variation, particularly the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the dating of population divergence. Problems in tree estimation have been seen as weakening the case for a replacement model and favoring a multiregional evolution(More)
A major goal in anthropological genetics is the assessment of the effects of different microevolutionary forces. Harpending and Ward (1982) developed a model that aids in this effort by comparing observed and expected heterozygosity within populations in a local region. The expected heterozygosity within a population is a function of the total(More)
The isolation-by-distance model predicts that genetic similarity between populations will decrease exponentially as the geographic distance between them increases, because of the limiting effect of geographic distance on rates of gene flow. Many studies of human populations have applied the isolation-by-distance model to genetic variation between local(More)
Previous studies of genetic markers and mitochondrial DNA have found that the amount of variation among major geographic groupings of Homo sapiens is relatively low, accounting for roughly 10% of total variation. This conclusion has had implications for the study of human variation and consideration of alternative models for the origin of modern humans. By(More)
To determine the validity of using hospital-based pediatric trauma registry data to draw specific inferences with regard to regional pediatric trauma system design, we compared statistical data on the incidence and mortality of pediatric and adult injuries and burns calculated by the New York State Department of Health, based on legally mandated reports of(More)
A number of analyses of classical genetic markers and DNA polymorphisms have shown that the majority of human genetic diversity exists within local populations (approximately 85%), with much less among local populations (approximately 5%) or between major geographic regions or "races" (approximately 10%). Previous analysis of craniometric variation(More)
This study researched the impact of anthropometrics and size-of-family of orientation on women's fertility by using path analysis. The data were collected as part of the anthropological study conducted in Ireland by Harvard University personnel before the Second World War. The women included in this analysis were all over age 49 and were either married or(More)