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In a case-control study based in two areas of Kenya, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni was shown to be linked with low levels of IL-5 and with correspondingly high IFN-gamma, TNF, and circulating soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFR-I), sTNFR-II, and sICAM-1. PBMC from the hepatosplenic cases responded to in vitro Ag stimulation with significantly higher(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium falciparum are common infections of school aged children in Kenya. They both cause enlargement of the spleen, but their relative contribution to the condition of splenomegaly remains unknown in areas where both infections are endemic. Here, we have investigated whether relatively high exposure to both infections(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria in pregnancy can expose the fetus to malaria-infected erythrocytes or their soluble products, thereby stimulating T and B cell immune responses to malaria blood stage antigens. We hypothesized that fetal immune priming, or malaria exposure in the absence of priming (putative tolerance), affects the child's susceptibility to subsequent(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous factors may influence Schistosoma infection intensity and prevalence within endemic communities, including exposure-related factors such as local environment and behaviour, and factors relating to susceptibility to infection such as immunology and genetics. While animal studies performed in the laboratory can be tightly controlled, human(More)
Schistosoma mansoni-infected individuals who have low intensities of reinfection following treatment produce immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against a range of S. mansoni adult-worm antigens. One of the targets of the IgE response is an adult-worm sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis band of 22 kDa (Sm22), which contains an antigen(s)(More)
BACKGROUND Amongst school-aged children living in malaria endemic areas, chronic morbidity and exacerbation of morbidity associated with other infections are often not coincident with the presence or levels of Plasmodium parasitaemia, but may result from long-term exposure to the parasite. Studies of hepatosplenomegaly associated with Schistosoma mansoni(More)
To determine whether maternal filariasis influences the risk of infection by and immunity to Wuchereria bancrofti in children, we performed a cross-sectional study in an area of Kenya where filariasis is endemic. Residents of 211 households were enrolled; 376 parents and 938 of their offspring between the ages of 2 and 17 years were examined for filarial(More)
We examined the long-term efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium, the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis, during a school-based treatment program in the Msambweni area of Coast Province, Kenya, where the disease is highly endemic. Our results, derived from treating 4,031 of 7,641 children from 1984 to 1993, indicate substantial(More)
In sub-Saharan Africa, chronic hepatosplenomegaly, with palpable firm/hard organ consistency, is common, particularly among school-aged children. This morbidity can be caused by long-term exposure to malaria, or by Schistosoma mansoni, and it is exacerbated when these two occur together. Although immunological mechanisms probably underlie the pathogenic(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosoma mansoni and malaria infections are often endemic in the same communities in sub-Saharan Africa, and both have pathological effects on the liver and the spleen. Hepatosplenomegaly associated with S. mansoni is exacerbated in children with relatively high exposure to malaria. Treatment with praziquantel reduces the degree of(More)