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Stressful life events have been implicated clinically in the pathogenesis of mental illness, but the neural substrates that may account for this observation remain poorly understood. Attentional impairments symptomatic of these psychiatric conditions are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in a network of prefrontal cortical structures.(More)
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in higher cognitive processes, and in the regulation of stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity. Here we examined the effect of repeated restraint stress on dendritic spine number in the medial PFC. Rats were perfused after receiving 21 days of daily restraint stress, and intracellular(More)
Age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) occurs in many mammalian species, including humans. In contrast to Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which circuit disruption occurs through neuron death, AAMI is due to circuit and synapse disruption in the absence of significant neuron loss and thus may be more amenable to prevention or treatment. We have investigated(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which numerous mouse models have been generated. In both AD patients and mouse models, there is increasing evidence that neuronal dysfunction occurs before the accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta)-containing plaques and neurodegeneration. Characterization of the timing and nature of(More)
Addictive drugs cause persistent restructuring of several neuronal cell types in the limbic regions of brain thought to be responsible for long-term behavioral plasticity driving addiction. Although these structural changes are well documented in nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons, little is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms.(More)
concept that cortical neurons are lost with age and that this is the basis for cognitive decline is so embedded in our culture that when someone elderly is a little forgetful it is often said that 'He/she is losing his/her neurons'. The prime difficulty in determining if neurons are lost from the cerebral hemispheres during normal aging is that it is not(More)
Experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate that both global dendritic branching topology and fine spine geometry are crucial determinants of neuronal function, its plasticity and pathology. Importantly, simulation studies indicate that the interaction between local and global morphologic properties is pivotal in determining dendritic information(More)
Normal ageing is associated with impairments in cognitive function, including memory. These impairments are linked, not to a loss of neurons in the forebrain, but to specific and relatively subtle synaptic alterations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Here, we review studies that have shed light on the cellular and synaptic changes observed in these(More)
Alterations in neuronal morphology occur in primate cerebral cortex during normal aging, vary depending on the neuronal type, region and cortical layer, and have been related to memory and cognitive impairment. We analyzed how such changes affect a specific subpopulation of cortical neurons forming long corticocortical projections from the superior temporal(More)
Neurons in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) generate persistent firing in the absence of sensory stimulation, the foundation of mental representation. Persistent firing arises from recurrent excitation within a network of pyramidal Delay cells. Here, we examined glutamate receptor influences underlying persistent firing in primate dlPFC(More)