John H M Brooks

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Objectives. Estimate and compare the proportion of cancer patients with cachexia using different definitions from available clinical data. Methods. Electronic medical records were examined to estimate the proportion of cancer patients with cachexia using 4 definitions: (1) ICD-9 diagnostic code of 799.4 (cachexia), (2) ICD-9 diagnosis of cachexia, anorexia,(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacists may improve medication-related outcomes during transitions of care. The aim of the Iowa Continuity of Care Study was to determine if a pharmacist case manager (PCM) providing a faxed discharge medication care plan from a tertiary care institution to primary care could improve medication appropriateness and reduce adverse events,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with tackles in rugby union and to assess their impact on the risk of injury. DESIGN Two-season (2003/2004 and 2005/2006) prospective cohort design with video analysis. SETTING 13 English Premiership clubs. PARTICIPANTS 645 players. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE RR (95% CI) calculated by comparing the frequency of(More)
OBJECTIVES To contrast the interpretations of treatment effect estimates using risk adjustment and instrumental variable (IV) estimation methods using observational data when the effects of treatment are heterogeneous across patients. We demonstrate these contrasts by examining the effect of breast conserving surgery plus irradiation (BCSI) relative to(More)
The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the stature, body mass, age and number of players by playing position in the first team squads of English Premiership rugby union teams from 2002 to 2011. Medical personnel at each club reported the individual data for every first team squad player. The average annual number of players included in the study(More)
PURPOSE The background and methods of an ongoing study to determine the effects of hospital pharmacists' enhanced communication with patients and their community providers are described. SUMMARY The Iowa Continuity of Care study is a randomized, prospective trial enrolling 1000 patients with selected medical conditions admitted to one large Midwest(More)
Instrumental variable (IV) and risk adjustment (RA) estimators, including propensity score adjustments, are both used to alleviate confounding problems in nonexperimental studies on treatment effects, but it is not clear how estimates based on these 2 approaches compare. Methodological considerations have shown that IV and RA estimators yield estimates of(More)
BACKGROUND Transfusion patterns are not well characterized in non-dialysis (ND) chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study describes the proportion of patients transfused, units of blood transfused and trigger-hemoglobin (Hb) levels for transfusions in severe anemic, ND-CKD patients in routine practice. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of(More)
BACKGROUND Comparative effectiveness studies using Medicare claims data are vulnerable to treatment selection biases and supplemental data from a sample of patients has been recommended for examining the magnitude of this bias. Previous research using nationwide Medicare claims data has typically relied on the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) for(More)
BACKGROUND Investigators have attributed protective effects of statins against pneumonia and other infections. However, these reports are based on observational data where treatments are not assigned randomly. We aimed to determine if the protective effects of statins against pneumonia are due to nonrandom treatment assignment. METHODS We built a cohort(More)