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Fluctuating asymmetry consists of random deviations from perfect symmetry in populations of organisms. It is a measure of developmental noise, which reflects a population's average state of adaptation and coadaptation. Moreover, it increases under both environmental and genetic stress, though responses are often inconsistent. Researchers base studies of(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is one of the principal input nuclei of the basal ganglia. Using electrophysiological techniques in anesthetized rats, we show that the STN becomes responsive to visual stimuli at short latencies when local disinhibitory injections are made into the midbrain superior colliculus (SC), an important subcortical visual structure.(More)
Does endogenous or exogenous selection stabilize the big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) hybrid zone? After two years of study, our reciprocal transplant experiments showed significant genotype by environment interactions for a number of fitness components, including germination, growth, and reproduction. Hybrids were the most fit within the hybrid garden.(More)
Magnetic fields (60 Hz) of 1.5 and 80 microT caused a significant reduction in the weight of Drosophila melanogaster. Moreover, fruit flies in an 80 microT field showed lower developmental stability than either those in a 0 or 1.5 microT field. Developmental instability was measured by fluctuating asymmetry and frequency of phenodeviants. More of the flies(More)
: Developmental stability refers to the ability of a developing organism to produce a consistent phenotype in a given environment. It provides a simple, reliable method of detecting stressed populations and monitoring their recovery. The most common measure of developmental instability, fluctuating asymmetry, assesses minor deviations from perfect bilateral(More)
Using fluctuating bilateral asymmetry as a measure of developmental stability, we tested the hypothesis that genomic coadaptation mediates developmental stability in natural populations. Hybrid populations were more asymmetrical than populations of the parental species, and ranks of overall developmental instability were positively correlated with ranks of(More)
: Fluctuating asymmetry has been proposed as a general and sensitive indicator of developmental instability. Although there have been many field studies of fluctuating asymmetry in populations exposed to toxic chemicals, there have been few laboratory studies. To test the hypothesis that stress from toxic chemicals causes an increase in fluctuating(More)
We examined habitat disturbance, species richness, equitability, and abundance of ants in the Fall-Line Sandhills, at Fort Benning, Georgia. We collected ants with pitfall traps, sweep nets, and by searching tree trunks. Disturbed areas were used for military training; tracked and wheeled vehicles damaged vegetation and soils. Highly disturbed sites had(More)
Unlike landmark methods for estimating object asymmetry, continuous symmetry measures (CSM) can be used to measure the symmetry distance (ds) of inconsistent objects, such as plant leaves. Inconsistent objects have no homologous landmarks, no consistent topology, no quantitative consistency, and sometimes no matching points. When CSM is used in conjugation(More)
BACKGROUND Distributed robustness is thought to influence the buffering of random phenotypic variation through the scale-free topology of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. If this hypothesis is true, then the phenotypic response to the perturbation of particular nodes in such a network should be proportional to the number(More)