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A new CMOS microprocessor, the Alpha 21164, reaches 1,200 mips/600 MFLOPS (peak performance). This new implementation of the Alpha architecture achieves SPECint92/SPECfp92 performance of 345/505 (estimated). At these performance levels, the Alpha 21164 has delivered the highest performance of any commercially available microprocessor in the world as of(More)
The 21164 is a new quad-issue, superscalar Alpha microprocessor that executes 1.2 billion instructions per second. Available this January, the 3OO-MHz,0.5-pm CMOS chip delivers an estimated 345/505 SPECint92/SPECfp92 performance. The design's high clock rate, low operational latency, and high-throughput/nonblocking memory systems contribute to this(More)
A 300-MHz, custom 64-bit VLSI, second-generation Alpha CPU chip has been developed. The chip was designed in a 0.5-um CMOS technology using four levels of metal. The die size is 16.5 mm by 18.1 mm, contains 9.3 million transistors, operates at 3.3 V, and supports 3.3-V/5.0-V interfaces. Power dissipation is 50 W. It contains an 8-KB instruction cache; an(More)
High-speed I/O circuits, once used only for PHYs, are now widely used for intra-system signaling as well because of their bandwidth, power, area, and cost advantages. This technology enables chips with over 1 Tb/s of I/O bandwidth today and over 10 Tb/s of bandwidth by 2010 as both sig-naling rates and number of high-speed I/Os increase with process(More)
0740-7475/97/$10.00 © 1997 IEEE 25 THE COMPLEXITY OF THE CIRCUITS and functions packed on the Alpha 21164 microprocessor, aggressive performance targets, tight design resources, and rapid development schedule raised many testability issues. At the same time, these factors also made insertion of testability solutions on the chip challenging, if not(More)
1 Abstract The NVAX and NVAX+ CPU chips are high-performance VAX microprocessors that use techniques traditionally associated with RISC microprocessor designs to dramatically improve VAX performance. The two chips provide an upgrade path for existing VAX systems and a migration path from VAX systems to the new Alpha AXP systems. The design evolved(More)
The fundamental problem in the design of microprocessors is that of mapping an abstract computer architecture onto the physical technology in which the microprocessor will be manufactured. Computer architectures are composed of logic and storage elements, which are abstractions. When realized in a particular technology, logic values, storage states, and the(More)