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Flow patterns generated by medusan swimmers such as jellyfish are known to differ according the morphology of the various animal species. Oblate medusae have been previously observed to generate vortex ring structures during the propulsive cycle. Owing to the inherent physical coupling between locomotor and feeding structures in these animals, the dynamics(More)
The creation of feeding currents by calanoid copepods increases encounter rates of copepods with their food and provides and advantage in dilute nutritional environments. Small-scale turbulence has also been hypothesized to increase the encounter rate between planktonic predators and their food. Centropages hamatus was exposed to turbulent and nonturbulent(More)
Jet propulsion, based on examples from the Hydrozoa, has served as a valuable model for swimming by medusae. However, cnidarian medusae span several taxonomic classes (collectively known as the Medusazoa) and represent a diverse array of morphologies and swimming styles. Does one mode of propulsion appropriately describe swimming by all medusae? This study(More)
Like that of most scyphozoans, the ontogeny of Cyanea capillata medusae involves substantive alterations in feeding structures and mechanics. We used video and optical microscopy approaches to quantify these ontogenetic changes in morphology, flow, and feeding of C. capillata medusae. We found that alterations in gross morphology and nematocyst(More)
The mechanical basis of prey capture and behaviour of Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884, as with most members of the Order Rhizostomeae, has not been described. Free-swimming medusae were videotaped in order to quantitatively describe the feeding process of P. punctata. Kinematic data demonstrated that adult medusae were surrounded by relatively(More)
The lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi occurs throughout Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, during warm summer months but is often undetectable in the central portion of the bay during winter months. During 2 yr of weekly sampling, we found that M. leidyi populations in a shallow embayment, Greenwich Cove, either overwintered or were only briefly absent(More)
In contrast to higher metazoans such as copepods and fish, ctenophores are a basal metazoan lineage possessing a relatively narrow set of sensory-motor capabilities. Yet lobate ctenophores can capture prey at rates comparable to sophisticated predatory copepods and fish, and they are capable of altering the composition of coastal planktonic communities.(More)
The genus Mnemiopsis is comprised of a single species, Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865, that has recently made the transition from a distribution limited to the Atlantic coasts of North and South America to an invasive range that includes the Black, Caspian, Mediterranean, North, and Baltic seas. We review the foundations of the ctenophore’s invasive(More)
Medusae were the earliest animals to evolve muscle-powered swimming in the seas. Although medusae have achieved diverse and prominent ecological roles throughout the world's oceans, we argue that the primitive organization of cnidarian muscle tissue limits force production and, hence, the mechanical alternatives for swimming bell function. We use a recently(More)
Fast-swimming hydromedusan jellyfish possess a characteristic funnel-shaped velum at the exit of their oral cavity that interacts with the pulsed jets of water ejected during swimming motions. It has been previously assumed that the velum primarily serves to augment swimming thrust by constricting the ejected flow in order to produce higher jet velocities.(More)