John H. Byrne

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The mechanisms underlying short-term presynaptic facilitation, the enhancement of transmitter release from sensory neurons in Aplysia, induced by serotonin (5-HT), can be divided into two categories: (1) changes in ionic conductances leading to spike broadening and enhancement of Ca2+ influx; and (2) actions on the machinery for transmitter release that are(More)
The tail-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia can be sensitized by weak stimulation of a site outside the site used to test the reflex or by repeatedly stimulating the test site itself. The sensitization of tail-withdrawal responses is associated with enhanced activation of the tail motor neurons and heterosynaptic facilitation of the monosynaptic connections(More)
Operant conditioning is a form of associative learning through which an animal learns about the consequences of its behavior. Here, we report an appetitive operant conditioning procedure in Aplysia that induces long-term memory. Biophysical changes that accompanied the memory were found in an identified neuron (cell B51) that is considered critical for the(More)
Mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulation of the tail elicits a short-latency (less than 1 s) tail-withdrawal reflex that is graded with the intensity of the stimulus. The tail-withdrawal reflex is not elicited by stimulation of parts of the body outside of the tail region. Mechanoafferent neurons innervating the tail are located in a small subcluster(More)
Although in vitro analyses of long-term changes in the sensorimotor connection of Aplysia have been used extensively to understand long-term sensitization, relatively little is known about the ways in which the connection is modified by learning in vivo. Moreover, sites other than the sensory neurons might be modified as well. In this paper, several(More)
Operant conditioning is characterized by the contingent reinforcement of a designated behavior. Previously, feeding behavior in Aplysia has been demonstrated to be modified by operant conditioning, and a neural pathway (esophageal nerve; E n.) that mediates some aspects of reinforcement has been identified. As a first step toward a cellular analysis of(More)
Catecholamines are believed to play an important role in regulating the properties and functional organization of the neural circuitry mediating consummatory feeding behaviors in Aplysia. In the present study, we morphologically and electrophysiologically identified a pair of catecholaminergic interneurons, referred to as B65, in the buccal ganglia. Their(More)
Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal(More)
The role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in long-term synaptic facilitation was examined in isolated Aplysia ganglia. Treatment with TGF-beta1 induced long-term facilitation (24 and 48 hours), but not short-term (5 to 15 minutes) or intermediate-term (2 to 4 hours) facilitation. The long-term effects of TGF-beta1 were not additive with those(More)