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Do well-functioning stock markets and banks promote long-run economic growth? This paper shows that stock market liquidity and banking development both positively, predict growth, capital accumulation, and productivity improvements when entered together in regressions, even after controlling for economic and political factors. The results are consistent(More)
two anonymous referees, and the editor of the journal. We particularly benefited from discussions with Gordon Alexander and Sergio Rebelo. We are grateful to Bhaskaran Swaminathan for providing us with monthly data on the intrinsic value to market value ratios for the Dow 30 Index. Qianqiu Liu provided valuable research assistance. Any views expressed in(More)
A growing theoretical literature describes mechanisms whereby even predictable increases in the rate of inflation interfere with the ability of the financial sector to allocate resources effectively. This paper empirically assesses these predictions. The evidence indicates that there is a significant, and economically important, negative relationship(More)
The use of broad equity-based compensation for employees in the lower ranks of an organization is a puzzle for standard economic theory: any positive incentive effects should be diminished by free rider problems, and undiversified employees should discount company equity heavily. We point out that employees do not appear to value company stock as prescribed(More)
This article develops a simple model that captures a concern for relative standing, or status. This concern is instrumental in the sense that individuals do not get utility directly from their relative standing, but, rather, the concern is induced because their relative standing affects their consumption of standard commodities. The article investigates the(More)
This paper measures the welfare cost of bank capital requirements and finds that it is surprisingly large. I present a simple framework which embeds the role of liquidity creating banks in an otherwise standard general equilibrium growth model. A capital requirement plays a role, as it limits the moral hazard on the part of banks that arises due to the(More)
  • John H. Boyd, Gianni De Nicolò, Abu M. Jalal, Laura Kodres
  • 2006
This Working Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF. The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate. This paper studies two(More)