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Results from studies of oculomotor tracking in one dimension have indicated that saccades are driven primarily by errors in position, whereas smooth pursuit movements are driven primarily by errors in velocity. To test whether this result generalizes to two-dimensional tracking, we asked subjects to track a target that moved initially in a straight line(More)
To identify rat brainstem nuclei involved in the initial, short-term response to a change in gravito-inertial force, adult Long-Evans rats were rotated in the horizontal plane for 90 min in complete darkness after they were eccentrically positioned off the axis of rotation (off-axis) causing a centripetal acceleration of 2 g. Neural activation was defined(More)
Subjects were asked to track, with their eyes or their hand, the movement of a target that maintained a constant speed and made a single, abrupt change in direction. The tracking speed and direction of motion after the step change in target direction were compared for the eyes and the hand. After removal of the saccades from the eye movement records, it was(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) was recently identified as a form of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia associated with small expansions of the trinucleotide repeat (CAG)n in the gene CACNL1A4 on chromosome 19p13, which encodes the alpha1 subunit of a P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel. We describe clinical, genetic, neuroimaging,(More)
We sought to determine how a visual maze is mentally solved. Human subjects (N = 13) viewed mazes with orthogonal, unbranched paths; each subject solved 200-600 mazes in any specific experiment below. There were four to six openings at the perimeter of the maze, of which four were labeled: one was the entry point and the remainder were potential exits(More)
Detection of Fos protein expression with a polyclonal antibody was used to identify brainstem neurons responding to acute (24 h) effects of a unilateral sodium arsanilate chemical labyrinthectomy in Long-Evans rats. Asymmetrical expression was apparent in the medial and inferior vestibular nuclei, the prepositus hypoglossi, the dorsolateral central gray,(More)
Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is a dominantly inherited disorder, characterized by spells of ataxia, dysarthria, vertigo, and migraines, associated with mutations in the neuronal calcium-channel gene CACNA1A. Ataxic spells lasting minutes to hours are provoked by stress, exercise, or alcohol. Some patients exhibit nystagmus between spells and some develop(More)
1. The activity of cat semicircular canal and otolith afferents was studied during yaw and roll rotations, respectively, to examine their dynamic behavior. 2. A sinusoidal analysis of the canal afferent activities showed that their dynamic characteristics are similar to those of second order vestibular neurons, except for a two to three-fold lower absolute(More)
1. The electrical activity of single trochlear motoneurons (TMns) and axons of second order vestibular neurons presumably terminating on these motoneurons were studied during natural stimulation of semicircular canals and otolith organs in cats anesthetized with Ketamine. 2. Null point analysis showed that TMns received an excitatory canal input from the(More)